There are literally thousands of drug treatment centers all over the country, all aiming to help people get rid of their drug addictions.
THE FUTURE OF ADDICTIONS
WHY WAIT ?
I appreciate the opportunity to address this distinguished group about the future of addictions. I assume you’re all here because you know in your heart that things are a mess in addictions today and don’t know why or what to do about it. Addictions have been and are currently a mess for reasons I hope to explain, clarify, and eventually change with your help and knowledgeable cooperation. We’re going to touch on some sensitive areas and I’m going to confront all of you in this address, so hold onto your seats, but please let go of your biases and false beliefs. I have some important things to say and those biases and false beliefs will interfere with the reception of this message. We can no longer afford to perpetuate the theory and practice nonsense and scientific fraud in addictionology for any reason, no less because of biases and false beliefs. I am deeply concerned that many of us have been unquestioningly loyal, blind and obedient to current addictionology misinformation, research fraud, and institutions. The power structure from AA to ZZ is filled with conflicts of interest and supported by private interest groups prejudiced by beliefs unrelated to addiction science or addict well being. In fact, there has been a genocide of monstrous proportions against hypoics across the world but especially in America for the last hundred years that has been supported by one phony addiction theory after another based on addictophobia, no different from racism, religious and ethnic genocides, or homophobia. My article on this is at: http://www.nvo.com/hypoism/entitledtoyouropinionnotanymore/
Addict fear, self-hatred, and anonymity have allowed this genocide to persist and thrive. We are so out of touch with our disease that we don’t even know this genocide is what we’ve been experiencing. We, our ancestors, and our children have been and will be victimized by this and our inaction derived from our own ignorance and heads in the sand, hoping someone else will take care of us. This simply must stop and it must stop now. We can no longer remain ignorant about our disease and passive in our fearful and guilt ridden acquiescence. Only the correct theory of addiction causation and our bringing it out into the sunshine full force will stop this and turn everything around to the benefit of all hypoics and the world as well. I’m the messenger, the whistleblower. I can’t do this alone. Change will only come from you and with your dedicated, educated, and informed work and action.
Mr. Eisenhower, the coordinator for this conference, asked me to discuss and explain the biochemical differences between people who end up addicts and those who don’t, considering the fact that many people use all forms of what I call addictors, those chemicals, behaviors, beliefs, and people that addicts get addicted to, while only a small percentage of this group of people ever get addicted to them. I will give you a simple and clear answer to this request followed by its revolutionary implications. The answer I give you is well known to the entire field of addictionology but for reasons of conflict of interest and control, however, the addiction field has chosen to ignore the obvious implications of the science behind this answer to the long standing detriment of all addicts and their families. The simple answer and its simple but profound implications are what I’m bringing to you today; how they will solve all problems with all addictions and just as simply if we only decide to use them. I believe that the widespread understanding and acceptance of the neurobiological differences between people who end up addicted and those who don't and the incorporation of this information in the development of prevention, recovery, and public policy could ultimately stand as one of the major achievements of the 21st century in the advancement of the health and welfare of all people in this country and the world. Whether this actually happens is up to you. Let’s begin.
In regards to addictions there are two kinds of people in this world. The first and largest group is made up of people who can use addictors of all kinds any way they want to or not and will never get addicted. They can’t get addicted. They believe they are in control of this, but they’re no more in control of not getting addicted than is the second group in control of getting addicted. This second group, a group of 10-20% of the population, an unknown percentage because it has never been studied, will always use addictors and always get addicted, like it or not. They believe they caused their addictions but they didn’t any more than the first group caused themselves not to get addicted. The first group doesn’t have the disease we’re going to discuss today and the second group does. I know you all know this intuitively, so why am I here? I’m here to explain and confirm it for you and get you moving in the right direction to finally help addicts, victims of a real disease, not perpetrators.
The disease that causes the trait of addictability, the neurobiological ability or capability to be an addict, as well as all the myriad of addictions and other major symptoms, is caused by numerous and mostly yet to be discovered low activity genetic alleles working in a particular brain machine no one here has ever heard of. Genes can come in many previously mutated forms. These different forms are called alleles. All people have the same genes but different alleles of these genes. That’s what makes us all slightly different in many respects. These alleles have different biological activities. Some high, some low, some in the middle. The disease of addictability I have named Hypoism because it is caused by the critically low (hypo) functional activity of a group of these genetic alleles. This disease and the trait of addictability are only found in those people having the right genetic alleles and/or the right combination of them working in a particular brain machine I will discuss later, and, critically, these addictions occur against the conscious will and control of these addicts, in other words, inexorably.
Thus: NOT anyone can become an addict as the current theories state. Only certain people, people with the prerequisite genetics can become, are capable of becoming, and will become addicts left to their own brain’s devices, and this occurrence is for all intents and purposes beyond their control. This implication turns the fields of addictionology and addictor and addiction control policies on their heads. It makes everything our country is doing to control addictions profoundly irrelevant, as you may have already noticed. Unless all addictors are made completely unavailable, an impossible task, addictions will inexorably occur in hypoics. Thus, the only way to prevent addictions and help addicts involves the use of the correct understanding of the cause of addictions, nothing else. Is this clear?
For some reason, however, as obvious and simple to all of you as that explanation just was, the trait of addictability has never been studied or researched in any way, shape or form by anyone in the entire field of addictionology though I have been demanding it for at least twelve years, as long as Hypoism has been censored from you. Thus, this talk is about a censored hypothesis. All other current addiction theories are hypotheses too, but this hypothesis, different from all others, is backed by very strong and valid science while those other hypotheses have already been disproved by strong and valid science though this is fraudulently ignored and denied by addiction experts. Thus, they wrongly continue to be used by addiction experts, the US government, and non-experts alike despite this. You all know the results of this, the mess in addictions we’re here to fix. I applaud Mr. Eisenhower’s honesty in ending this public censorship and allowing Hypoism to become public knowledge.
Addictability, an unheard of concept today, is not caused by the use of the addictors, stupidity, lack of spirituality, character defects, anti-social or other personality disorders or personalities, stress, abuse, poverty, vitamin deficiencies, learning it from bad or addicted parent’s behavior, bad neighborhoods, or anything else as the addiction experts and gurus claim although they may be associated with them. Association, however, doesn’t prove or equal cause, and that pseudoscientific mistake has been one reason for our undoing in understanding addictions; purposely mistaking associations for causes for a hundred years. The field has had a hundred years to prove those above associations as causes yet has never done so, yet continues to fraudulently insist they are causes nonetheless.
In addition to addictability, all the actual addictions, one of three major groups of symptoms derived from Hypoism, the other two being decision disasters and evaluation mistakes, are also caused by these same genetic alleles but not always with an exact one to one gene/addiction specificity. By this I mean two things: 1. That all people with Hypoism get addicted to one or more addictors but, 2. The same genes may not cause the same exact addictions. That’s because the disease that causes addictability causes all addictions but which addictor or addictors the hypoic ends up addicted to is determined by both genetic and non-genetic influences. This lack of exact one to one gene/addiction specificity is the reason why when the genetics of specific addictions is studied epidemiologically the heritability numbers are high but never 100%. The less than 100% heritability of specific addictions has been misinterpreted as proof that some non-genetic cause, something called “the environment,” is also a cause of addictions. This misinterpretation is a methodological error of massive import and has caused confusion in the understanding of the cause of addictions since heritabilities have been (mis)used in addiction epidemiological studies. Environment, unless it is one of the pathophysiological forces mentioned below, can no more cause a disease than can your imagination. What has caused this confusion, besides the “environmentalistic”/psychobabble bias, is that genetics causes the disease that causes all addictions but genetics and non-genetic influences combine to choose the specific addictions. This is why addictability needs to be studied epidemiologically, not just specific addictions; why the underlying disease is the critical issue and not the mere addictions. As you will see this change in emphasis, from a primary focus on specific addictions to focus on the actual disease that causes the addictions, leads to changes in how we perceive every aspect of addictions, from cause, to prevention, to recovery, to public attitudes and beliefs, and lastly to public policies such as drug laws and the drug war.
Thus, the hypothesized genetic disease of addictability and its symptoms I have named Hypoism standing for low, hypo, activity of special genetic alleles working in a special brain machine that was developed by evolution for other reasons. Genetic diversity (alleles) within this brain mechanism causes an evolutionarily unintended trait and behaviors we know as addictability and addictions. Once Hypoism is acknowledged as the most valid, science-based, and parsimonious cause of addictions and answers through its neurobiological implications all questions about the vagaries of addictions and addicts as well as prevention, recovery, and relapse issues, I hope, with your help and active support, we can move as a group to change the direction of addiction research and practice toward using this hypothesis and finally make some headway in this bogged down mess of a field we call addictionology.
Before I develop the details and all symptoms of this disease, addictions being just one of them, I need to discuss a few uncomfortable but important issues.
The first thing you must decide today is whether you are primarily for protecting and helping addicts or those institutions you love so dearly that say they are for helping addicts. As you will see you can’t do both. If you want to protect institutions then you’re clearly in the wrong meeting because the outcome of this address will be the dismantling of these institutions at least as we know them today. Addiction institutions have made some of us feel warm and fuzzy over the last 70 years but they have not solved the addiction mess and there’s no indication from the way they are thinking and acting that they ever will. In fact, it’s gotten worse under their leadership and control. Their biases and conflicts of interest have and are rigidly perpetuating addiction theory, practices, and policies that are clearly not only incorrect but on the whole actually hurtful to us all. The crisis we face in addictions today is whether we addicts continue to abdicate and acquiesce to outdated and conflicted institutions that don’t have our interest as their primary purpose or, on the other hand, use our rational brains, numbers, and resources to use the science of addictions to meet our needs. We have allowed ourselves to be defrauded and deeply injured by experts we have entrusted but, as it turns out, have not deserved that trust. If you can make the decision in favor of addicts over institutions then you must be willing to dump every known expert and institution currently in existence purporting to be for addict’s health, well being, and safety from discrimination and addict haters depending on their scientific honesty and integrity.
Because all beneficial addiction policies which include prevention, treatment, recovery, and public policies are derived (consciously or unconsciously, knowingly or unknowingly) from some theory of addiction causation, the primary emphasis we have today and in the future is on the correct theory of addiction causation based on valid science and then the support of those institutions that use this correct theory or, conversely, their deserved critique and rejection if they refuse to. Correct and effective addiction policies cannot be derived from either incorrect theories or from thin air. Policies derived from wrong theories or thin-air, what I call superstition and fraud, are always hurtful and ineffective even when they superficially or temporarily seem to be beneficial and helpful. The reason for this is that by claiming to be correct and believed to be correct absent any scientific or medical validity and frequently without even any attempts to be proven, they inhibit the discovery of the correct theory and thus over the long haul hurt all people who need the correct theory and its resultant effective policies. All of medicine is based on this premise and use of the scientific method, and addictions are clearly medical issues. Only the correct theory of addiction causation based on the scientific method will fix the mess we have been placed in by moralists, pseudoscientists, quacks, frauds, and gurus out for personal gain of one kind or another. Thus, our primary purpose, if we truly are for addicts rather than for perpetuating institutions, institutions based on incorrect theories or superstitions, is to research, uncover, and fully develop the correct theory of addiction causation, irrespective of the effect this may have on those institutions we currently blindly trust. This research and development hasn’t yet been done in the field of addictionology and is never going to be done through an evolutionary process but instead can only be done by a revolutionary process. This is because the direction addictionology has been moving in regards to addiction theory is the completely wrong direction based on old biases not valid science and continuing in that direction will never evolve to the correct theory. The misinterpretations of the science of addictions due to various biases are just too strong in these variously warped institutions. All historical and present addiction theories fit this description. This is why we must be willing to dump current addiction institutions if they refuse to acknowledge and cooperate with this premise and medical principle. To date, over the last twelve years of my attempting this, and I have contacted hundreds of them, no addiction-related institution has even responded to this premise no less shown any sign of acknowledgment or cooperation. In fact, my work and writings have been completely ignored and even censored from addicts and the general public by the entire field of addictions and its institutions, especially those institutions you hold dear to your hearts, even though they have been based on valid science, science that does exist.
The second thing you must understand today in order to move on to helping addicts is the difference between a disease and a sign or symptom. A complete discussion of the so-called disease concept, which is not a concept but a reality, is on my web site at: http://www.nvo.com/hypoism/diseaseconcept1aperspective/
Signs and symptoms of diseases are what we observe on the outside and what the patient complains of. In the case of addictions these are the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, the addictions and other behaviors, while diseases are the actual physical parts of the body, the specific physiologies that are altered by the known forces that produce the disease. In medicine these known forces are physical damage, infectious, immune, genetic, toxins/poisons, cancer, aging and degeneration, etc. There is no such pathophysiological force called “environment” unless it is one of those listed above. Moreover, psychobabble has just not ever been proven to be a pathophysiological force. In fact, over the last thirty years or so environment and psychobabble have been removed from the list of pathophysiological causes of hundreds of mental illnesses, brain diseases, except in addictionology. Are you catching on yet?
So, a disease is the alteration of some “normal” physiology to a pathophysiology, one that produces signs and symptoms via one of these forces with the occurrence of negative consequences to the organism; a simple and functional definition. Thus, addictions are not and cannot be diseases but must be symptoms of a disease because they all conform to the definition of the word symptom, not the word disease. Thus, there is no such thing as alcoholism, only Hypoism with alcohol addiction. The science of addictions has already proven this though the experts apparently don’t understand the difference between a symptom and a disease as well as continuing to use “environment” and psychobabble as phony pathophysiological forces totally unfounded and fraudulently.
Thus, the correct theory of addiction causation, our primary focus, must come from the correct understanding of some existing normal brain mechanism present in everyone that is transformed into a diseased mechanism (a pathophysiology) by one or more of those disease producing forces listed above from which addictions and other symptoms are derived. No one before me has even taken this approach or traveled in this medical principled direction, the medical approach that has transformed all other fields of medicine into modern medicine except addictionology. As you will see, I have accomplished this task, at least the beginnings of this task. Much more needs to be done.
All of my work and writings about addictions has been based on these above principles which I didn’t invent, modern medicine did. So don’t blame me for their existence and our need to follow them in our work. They’re the same principles that ensure airplanes fly and I’m sure you wouldn’t ride in an airplane designed by pseudoscience, so why in addictions? I was wide awake in medical school unlike the rest of the field. Critically, none of the work by the field of addictions has ever been based on this approach which is why they have been going in the wrong direction for a hundred years and are being forced to continue in that direction by the experts and their institutions; thus the need for revolution rather than evolution. All the current and past incorrect theories of addiction causation have been based on old, biased, and medically invalid beliefs about the symptoms and mislabeling them diseases rather than on the open-minded and unbiased science-based understanding of the one underlying disease, a disease the field even today denies exists! The field knows they don’t have a correct theory. I quote from Chapter 7 from one of the major books on addictions, Substance Abuse - A Comprehensive Textbook, edited by Joyce Lowinson and Pedro Ruiz, “Unraveling the etiology [cause] of substance abuse continues to be a challenge. There have been many technological advances in understanding the chemistry of human behavior, including the highly significant discovery of opiate receptor sites and endorphins, as well as other neurotransmitter systems. However, the substance abuse field continues to be in a PREPARADIGM stage of development, suggesting a lack of agreement between theory and treatment." Preparadigm means no paradigm, no theory. This book was published at a time when Lowinson was fully aware of Hypoism but ignored it. Look at all the web sites of all the institutions you think are helping addicts. You won’t find a theory of addiction causation, especially not a complete or valid one, on any one of them. My entire web site is about theory because theory always come first before everything else. This is a principle, like it or not.
So, if you are now ready to take this approach we can move on to the future of addictionology without the need to debunk every known invalid theory of addiction causation and their addiction controlling institutions although I did go through this debunking in my book. What we are in search of is the correct and medically valid theory of addiction causation so that from this can come valid and effective research, prevention, treatment, recovery, and public policies for the sake of the addict, their families, and society as a whole. This is what we want, right? Well, theory comes first.
Where do we start on the journey to discovering the correct theory of addiction causation? Before we begin, we must keep in mind two critical things that must be answered by this theory: 1. Are addictions willful and consciously caused by the addict as is currently believed or are they against the will of the addict and unconsciously caused as are symptoms of every other disease? 2. Is there one overriding cause for all addictions, or are there numerous causes for each of them and for all of them, so-called multifactorial causes, as is currently expressed and believed? Let me give you a clue to the answers to those critical questions: There is not a single medical disease known to medicine as a disease today that is considered willfully and consciously caused by the patient or that is multifactorial. Every accepted disease known to modern medicine is conceptualized as caused against the will of the person with the disease and by a single major cause, not a dozen causes working willy-nilly or haphazardly and differently in different patients made up after the fact. If medicine worked this way there would be no modern medicine. We would still be in the dark ages of witch craft, currently the state of addictionology.
Is there any way to stick to the above principles of modern medicine, remain consistent with the disease concept of modern medicine or the pathophysiological basis of modern medicine, and find the cause of addictions that can still reconcile what we know to be valid clinically and empirically? Of course, that’s why I’m here. The Hypoism paradigm of addictions does all this while simultaneously being derived from current valid science, much of this science is over 15 years old already and hasn’t yet been incorporated into practice. Hypoism is the only addiction causation hypothesis known to me that does this and this is one of the most compelling reasons I think Hypoism is as close to the correct theory we can come up with today and must be used to direct future research and derive policies of all kinds surrounding addictions and addicts.
Let us begin this search for the disease with this question: Is there any evidence for the existence of some “normal” brain mechanism from which addictions of all kinds might be derived via some known disease producing force on that mechanism? I have left out the references from this discussion to save time, but they are available on my web site in various places, especially in the article whose web link is: http://www.nvo.com/hypoism/3rdmillenniumspeech1revised/ and in my book.
It is well known and well accepted that drug additions all are related one way or another to the reward center deep in the brain. Every known addictive drug cross reacts with endogenous neurotransmitter receptors that reside in the reward center, the reward cascade that ultimately results in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, the brain nucleus from where the conscious and unconscious feeling of reward emanates. Animal and ultimately human evolution over the last three or so hundred million years, a long time, evolved the reward cascade to reinforce instinctive behaviors that improve chances of survival, not for animals to get high, a reason seemingly unrelated to addictions but not. Thus, all animal and human instincts are intimately connected to and enmeshed with the reward cascade for biological reasons that have enhanced survival over evolutionary time. The instinct regulating apparatus is this brain organ. One of my seminal web site articles, http://www.nvo.com/hypoism/thehypoismaddictionhypothesis/ details my hypothesis on how all addictions are quite simply unintended consequences of the evolution of this part of the brain, the neurobiology and genetic diversity of this brain mechanism, the instinct regulating apparatus, a brain mechanism discussed by no other addiction theorist. How this lapse remains, that I have been the only addiction theorist to make this connection, is beyond me because it is known how and why the reward cascade ended up in the brain exactly where it is and doing what it does there.
To quickly summarize my article, we have an instinct regulating apparatus in the brain, in fact, in an unconscious part of the brain, put there by evolution to enhance survival of all animals, not just humans, by regulating instinctive decisions with neurological rewards and punishments. I call this brain mechanism the instinct regulating apparatus or the decision-making apparatus (DMA) because it regulates and controls unconscious instinctive decisions and behavior. It has clearly been shown that this mechanism as part of the limbic system has strong connections and effects on the cerebral cortex, the conscious part of the brain, but that there are very few connections and effects from the cerebral cortex on the decision-making apparatus. In other words, we essentially have a one way street from the limbic instinct regulating apparatus to the cerebral cortex and very little control of the cortex on the DMA. The prefrontal cortex does exert inhibitory influence over instinctive decision-making, but if the instinctive thought is strong enough, as in the case of Hypoism, or rarely, if the inhibition is somehow interfered with that control is overwhelmed. An interesting but very rare case of a man with a brain tumor in the frontal cortex associated with sex addiction is discussed on my web site at: http://www.nvo.com/hypoism/138braintumorproveshypoismhypothesis/ When the tumor was removed the addiction disappeared but when the tumor relapsed the addiction relapsed as well, and disappeared again when it was removed once more. This rare case shows two things: 1. that frontal lobe inhibitory activity can be overcome by purely unconscious biological reasons, and 2. that the addiction must already be built-in to the person’s brain for it to be expressed. This man’s doctors are still trying to figure out what went on with him but they raised important issues about free will and addictions as have all honest doctors who take care of addicts of all kinds. They just have not made the leap to the full reality. The way his doctor put it, “That's one of the interesting things about frontal lobe damage," Swerdlow said. "This guy, he knew what he was doing was wrong, but he thought there wasn't anything wrong with him, and he didn't stop." Know any addicts who sound like this? Thus, “Just say no,” an attempt at pure cortical control ignoring the Hypoism neurobiology, just doesn’t work for hypoics as we well know. It’s because of the way evolution built our brains. Here’s my simplified diagram of addiction producing mechanism. The FOKS, the Feel OK System is the evaluator of this mechanism affected by the various low activity genetic alleles. This diagram is my simple-minded but practical view of the DMA.
Add to this conceptualization that all known addictions, both to drugs, directly within the reward cascade, and to behaviors, derived from the various instincts regulated by this mechanism such as sex, eating, risk taking, exploring, falling in love, attachments to other humans, resource collection, the two major social instincts, even the superstition instinct, and many more, can be derived from this system without having to go anywhere else in the brain. [Just so you can read something definite describing the superstition instinct I include the link to an article on it at: http://www.nvo.com/hypoism/10thesuperstitioninstinct3100/ ]
The instinct regulating or decision-making apparatus (DMA) is a self-contained system that has incorporated in it all the elements we need to explain all addictions, to drugs and behaviors, even beliefs. Below is a table showing the relationship between addictions, on the left, and the addictors, drugs and named instincts (in brackets), on the right. Bill Wilson was intuitively aware of these connections when he stated in the first sentence of the forth step in the 12 and 12, “Creation gave us instincts for a purpose. Yet these instincts, so necessary for our existence, often far exceed their proper purpose. Powerfully, blindly, many times subtly, they drive us, dominate us, and insist upon ruling our lives.” Of course, he was talking about himself and generalizing to the rest of us. He was correct but he just didn’t understand the mechanism of why this happened. Now we know the correct mechanism: The DMA and the low activity genetic alleles that regulate their use in hypoics as opposed to the rest of the population. The low activity genetic alleles found in hypoics like Bill Wilson are the cause not the instincts themselves showing why we need to focus on the brain and not the addictors, drugs and instincts. The implications of this difference in mechanism, creationism and psychobabble versus evolution, genetic diversity and neurobiology, are the key differences between all current addiction theories including AA and Hypoism, and, this is a big big difference. I could go on about Wilson’s discussions on instincts, but if you read his books you can tell that he knew quite well there was some mysterious connection between addictions and out of control instincts but he used the wrong theory for his explanation of that absence of control, the psychobabble/religious theory prevalent in his time. There’s no doubt in my mind that if Wilson were alive today, especially with Dr. Bob at his side whispering science in his ear, he would change his entire take on addiction causation and would be a supporter of Hypoism. But, he’s dead. We must make that change ourselves.
Addictions (* denotes socially acceptable addictions and are thereby camouflaged)
Drug (addictor) or
Primary instinct addictions1
are listed in [brackets]
Heroin, cocaine, marijuana, Valium, speed, etc.
People* (so-called co-dependency). Best current example is O.J. and Nicole Simpson: both participants are addicts in romantic “relationships.” All hypoics are people addicts. The most common and under-recognized of all addictions; also the most powerful and the most dangerous. Alanonics
People - romantic “relationships,” parents, children, bosses, people with power over you who are so indispensable to you. “Falling in love.” Celebrity addiction (fans, stalkers) [ATTACHMENT] [AUTHORITY] [RESENTMENT]
Food and self-image, control, rage
Self-mutilation, Hair pulling
Remorse, rage, shame, guilt
[PRIDE and APPROVAL /OSTRACISM]
Narcissism, Body Dismorphic Disorder (BDD): addiction to imagined or real defect in appearance
Self-image, pride, shame [PRIDE, APPROVAL/ OSTRACISM]
Ritual, superstition [SUPERSTITION]
Exercise*, body building, anabolic steroids
Food, self-image, steroids, exercise induced high [PRIDE, APPROVAL]
Sex, voyeurism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, etc.
People, prostitutes, pornography and associated objects (fetishes) [LUST]
“Gaming” industry, tracks, stock market, lotto [GREED, SUPERSTITION]
Cash, credit cards, material possessions, image [GREED, APPROVAL]
Career, image, isolation [PRIDE, APPROVAL]
Power-Military,* police,* politicians,* Mafioso, Religious,* cult and gang leaders, correction and probation officers,* gurus*
Power [PRIDE, XENOPHOBIA, SUPERSTITION, APPROVAL, AUTHORITY, and AGONIC]
Supply, money, credit, things [GLUTTONY]
Comedy,* acting,* performing*
Applause, appreciation [APPROVAL]
Theft, vandalism, con-men, compulsive and impulsive lying, image (phonies)
Others’ possessions, lying, stealing other’s acclaim, addiction to celebrity and popularity [ENVY, APPROVAL]
Rage [ENVY, RESENTMENT]
Resentment, rage [XENOPHOBIA]
Religions,* cults, superstitions*, self-help*, and gangs
God, pride, self-righteousness, power, hate, people [SUPERSTITION, APPROVAL, AUTHORITY, ATTACHMENT, AGONIC]
People who are different in any way [XENOPHOBIA, PRIDE]
Dangerous activities [FEAR, PRIDE, APPROVAL]
Internet addiction*: a composite of people addiction, “falling in love” addiction, sex addiction, risk addiction, and hobby addiction
People and sex [FALLING IN LOVE, ATTACHMENT, LUST, ENVY, PRIDE, AND APPROVAL]
Now, if you conceptualize this mechanism present in every human, and every animal, as a thermostat [discussed at http://www.nvo.com/hypoism/hypoisminanutshell/] that unconsciously directs the use of instinctive behavioral repertoires and the search for FOKS raisers, chemicals and instinct-related behaviors, you have the beginning of an understanding of this part of the brain and how it alone can be responsible for all and every addiction. Just add, lastly, the simple fact that this thermostat’s settings of the reward cascade and the various instinct regulators are determined by genetic alleles, the different forms that these regulatory genes exist in human and other animal populations, having different activity levels, ranging from high to very low, we have a model of a single complete brain mechanism that can cause all known addictions, and to reiterate, unconsciously at that. Parenthetically, and required to be stated here, this hypothesis of addiction causation is not only backed by only valid science but is diametrically opposite to all the other current theories, none of which have made a dent in resolving the myriad of addiction problems that remain untouched over the last hundred years. In fact, addictions have grown larger not smaller under these other theories, none of which are supported by science but only by bias, beliefs, and lies.
This genetic diversity has been demonstrated. It is the very low activity genetic alleles that cause this thermostat to be set so high that, left to its own devises, never turns off. Put another way, when the genetic alleles in this mechanism have critically low activity they completely overwhelm the conscious control mechanism and inexorably cause addictor use and addictions of one variety or another against the will of the hypoic. Thus, we have Hypoism, the disease causing all addictions, the out of control use of neurotransmitter substitutes, drugs, and behaviors that raise the levels of the endogenous neurotransmitters by the use of the behavior or belief, caused by very low activity genetic alleles regulating this system.
Do these low activity genetic alleles exist in this brain mechanism? Yes. Several so far have been found associated with various spontaneous and voluntary drug addictions in both pure bred lab animals and both drugs and behavioral addictions in genetically diverse humans within genetically related families. I detail this important science in the book and on the web site. What are these various alleles with different activity levels doing in these populations? Where do they come from? Evolution continuously produces genetic diversity by random mutations. Some of these alleles disappear over evolutionary time by natural selection but much genetic allelic diversity remains within species, usually alleles that have positive survival value. Genetic alleles frequently have several seemingly unrelated and even opposite effects, some beneficial and some harmful depending on the situation or the environment. This is a well known fact in all areas of medical genetics, not just addictions. What effects on this particular brain mechanism, the DMA or instinct regulating apparatus, do these genetic alleles perform and why are they still around? Low activity genetic alleles in this brain mechanism are behavior motivating. Humans are aware of them by the feelings and instinctive thoughts they engender. The lower the activity of the different alleles the higher is the motivation towards particular behaviors and the stronger are the feelings of urgency to change the needy feelings these alleles cause and to act. Feelings are changed by using the instincts cued by the feelings and the consequent release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Thus, we can see how these low activity genetic alleles have many positive effects on the survival of the human species. They exert high motivation behind all instinctive behaviors and the unconscious need to change feelings, the conscious clues that behaviors are required and accomplished by doing these behaviors. Over the last few million years of human evolution these highly motivating alleles have been critical for the survival of the human species. However, in the presence of the abundance and pure forms of neurotransmitter substitutes, drugs, and behavioral addictors such as fast foods, the sex industry, and the gambling industry, a very recent environmental change, use and subsequent addiction to mood altering drugs and various behaviors have become unintended consequences of these alleles. This is why I say addictions are an unintended consequence of evolution and why they are recent phenomenon. It is easy to see how they can cause all addictions, both chemical and behavioral, through this large, all inclusive, and evolutionarily important brain mechanism.
As an aside, the reason I don’t list or focus on the “known” genetic alleles causing addictions is twofold: 1. Specific genes are associated with addictions but no individual gene has yet been proven to cause any of them, and I don’t believe any one of them will be proven to cause Hypoism. There may be several hundred genes or more working in various parts of the DMA and several alleles of each of these genes capable of contributing to Hypoism, a complex genetic regulatory mix of genes and their alleles. My feeling about this is that it is more critical in dealing with the clinical aspects of Hypoism to understand how the DMA is warped functionally in general rather than how any one of thousands of possible combinations of alleles perverts it specifically. Some addictions may turn out to have one or a very few genes causing them, but I don’t think that will be the general case. I believe it will turn out that many different genetic combinations will be shown to cause the same functional disease. Thus, rather than the prevention and recovery being based on dealing with each individual genetic allele in each individual hypoic we can deal with all hypoics pretty much the same way, according to how the disease warps the function of the overall DMA irrespective of which specific gene or genes are involved in that specific person. This is quite different from the one gene one disease we see in simpler genetic monogenetic diseases. The search for specific genes should be continued for the sake of basic science but I believe the clinical side of Hypoism will be fulfilled much better by dealing with the functional alterations alone. 2. Except for genetic engineering, a treatment I believe to be anathema to addicts because of all the good qualities of these genes we would lose, I don’t think drugs aimed at genes will prevent or cure Hypoism or their symptoms in a humane way. I know the NIH is going in that direction and I believe it’s their lack of understanding of the basis of addictions that pushes them in that direction, part of their need to change and control addicts. That would be good for the government but very bad for addicts in several ways. If these drugs actually work they will (a) be forced on addicts addicted to illegal drugs, and (b) they will have crucial and harmful side-effects such as inhibition or diminution of healthy rewards if they are aimed at blocking the reward system or cause new addictions if they are aimed at reversing the reward deficiencies such as is the case with methadone for heroin addiction. Moreover, in the long run most addicts treated with addiction stopping drugs either stop taking them and revert to their previous addictions or pick up new addiction while on the drugs. All in all, I believe it will turn out that attempts to stop addictions with drugs has proved and will prove to be harmful to hypoics and that the prevention and recovery method I propose below for Hypoism will be best, especially for the hypoic, the only important person to be considered here. This is because, as you will see, the functional problems caused by the genes are dealt with by the recovery method while the positive attributes of those same genes are allowed to exert themselves to benefit the specific hypoic and the public. Changing the genes or their cellular products one way or another irrevocably alters the entire hypoic with loss of both the bad and the good sides of these genes. We don’t want that.
So, going back to the search for the brain mechanism and the principles of the concept of disease discussed previously, we have a normal brain mechanism, the instinct regulating apparatus or DMA, present in all humans, and, we have a viable hypothesis and evidence for one of the listed forces that cause pathophysiological alterations in bodily mechanisms, genetics through pre-existing genetic alleles of the regulatory genes of this mechanism.
Is there any confirmatory evidence that genetics plays a role in addiction causation? Boy, is there! We have tons of epidemiological studies on human adoptees, families, twins separated and together, that all show high (60-83%) heritabilites for all addictions, both to drugs and behaviors, ever studied. For example, bulimia, one of the eating instinct addictions, has the highest heritability of all addictions so far studied. You should know that heritability methods underestimate the role of genetics in causation of a trait. Geneticists know that equating heritability with genetic causation is a conceptual and methodological error, what I call a lie. A calculated heritability may be 70%, let’s say, while the role of genetics can still be 100% due to additive and peripheral genetic effects not seen in the heritability determination and calculation. Thus, the genetic cause of all studied addictions is even higher than their heritability numbers and for the most part, is the major cause of addictions if looked at honestly, with an honest use of the heritability concept. You aren’t aware of this because addictionologists haven’t been honest in their use of heritability methodology. You’ve been lied to about this. Moreover, an epidemiological study on the initiation or first use of a drug, cigarettes, done by Kendler et al, showed this trait to be 60% heritable while the addiction to cigarettes itself was found to be only slightly higher, 70%. Initiation was found to be practically as heritable as addiction. Taken together, in context, this shows that from the get go, initiation, addictor use in those who eventually become addicts, is genetic not just a stupid conscious, self-destructive, and antisocial decision made by some jerk who later becomes an addict because of that stupid “choice.” Remember, many people use addictors, drugs and behaviors, but only few end up addicted. It is only those with the right genetics and this all happens against their will from the get go, not willfully as the current and clearly incorrect addiction hypothesis pushed on us by the federal government and addictionology, the hijacked brain hypothesis, states. That’s what I was asked to discuss and that I have done. This perception of addictor use and addiction causation radically alters one’s perception of addictions when seen in this light.
To reiterate and remind you for focus sake, addictions are not solely what are being inherited so the study of the isolated genetics of individual addictions has led to invalid conclusions about their cause. It is the disease that causes addictions that is being inherited, not specifically the addictions, though pressure towards certain addictors over others in particular individuals is strongly genetic as well, a twofold genetic process; addictability and specific addictions. Thus, heritabilities of specific addictions will always seem to falsely reduce the effect of genetics on the cause of addictions when just specific addictions are studied. For example, if you study a family for the genetics of alcohol addiction, only alcohol addiction is counted as a positive for the determination of the heritability number. Any other addiction is ignored, counted as a negative, not counted towards the “heritability” calculation though it may well have been caused by the same underlying disease. As you all know from your experiences with families of addicts, many times there exists within these families a variety of addictions, not just alcohol addiction and in addition to alcohol, thus falsely and methodologically undercounting the effects of genetics in the causation of “addictions.” I have asked for these epidemiological studies to be redone for the presence or absence of “any addiction” to show this misattributing effect but the field has so far refused to do this. This crucial refusal has maintained the equal status of so-called environmental etiology, the difference between the heritability percent and 100 percent, of addictions when it is in fact purely a methodological lie prejudicially used to maintain “the environment” as an equal cause of addictions. We all know the effect this has. It maintains the onus and focus on the individual as having caused his own addictions and thus whatever happens to him is his fault. How many times have we all heard, “Well, you did it to yourself!” It supports all the cruel implications of that indictment. Now, you all know that “environment” isn’t even a pathophysiological force capable of causing a disease. So, the use of the term, “environmental cause” of addictions is invalid in several different ways, both medically and epidemiologically.
In addition to strong epidemiological evidence for the genetic causation of specific addictions in humans, there is an immense amount of information gleaned from studying in-bred, genetically-pure, animal strains for spontaneous and “voluntary,” not coerced, chemical addictions. Within these in-bred strains are consistently found genetic differences and low activity alleles pertinent to the same drugs human get addicted to. In fact, genetics, presence of normal alleles, also rules out spontaneous addictions in these animals as well. It works both ways in animals as well as in humans. These animal models add much weight to the unconscious nature of addiction causation because we view animals as acting purely unconsciously, totally unaffected by any advertising by the partnership for a drug-free America, “just say no” admonishments by wives of presidents, peer pressure, or other alleged conscious environmental choices. This model has advanced the purely genetic understanding of addiction causation to a large extent, yet has been underutilized for human addiction theory purposes except by a few honest yet largely silent addiction neurobiologists like Eliot Gardner at NIDA because it completely destroys the current theories of addiction causation currently maintained for biased and conflict of interest reasons.
So, we have now demonstrated what was required for a single and self-contained disease of addictions to exist: the neurobiological existence of a normal brain mechanism, the DMA, containing all the prerequisite parts necessary for the development of any addiction, altered by one pathology causing force, a genetic force, that produces addictions of all known varieties related to instincts and the neurotransmitters of the reward cascade in only those people (and animals) having low activity genetic alleles working in this system.
This is the disease of Hypoism and it is consistent with the principles of modern medicine set out at the beginning of this talk and it supplies all the answers to all the questions and requirements a valid disease must. It connects all the dots. That the physical location of this disease in an unconscious place in the brain and for the most part unamenable to conscious influences and that it is determined genetically is strong evidence that the disease works and acts unconsciously as all other genetic diseases do. Hypoism, therefore, is no different from any other genetic disease of any other part of the body and requires that it be dealt with as such. The implications of this disease are profound and revolutionary.
Thus, my simple and all inclusive definition of an addiction is: “The use of a drug, behavior, belief or person to change how one feels against one’s will.” And this is from the get go, not just after prolong conscious and willful use as the hijacked brain hypothesis wrongly and blamingly insists, putting the onus wrongly and with moralistic biased and discriminating motives on the addict, perceived as a perpetrator rather than as a victim of a real disease he never had any control over from the onset, conception.
Hypoism is the disease and addictions and other decision-making difficulties are the symptoms. This theory is the only known theory that incorporates all valid principles of modern medicine and reconciles all valid addiction research in animals and humans. I submit that we need to turn our research efforts in this direction, a complete about face from our current direction, if we are ever going to help addicts, rather than maintaining institutions based on invalid addiction theories and damning addicts and their families. The details of this brain mechanism are worked out in my book, Hypoic’s Handbook, as well as where prevention and recovery methods are derived and why. I will summarize these prevention and recovery details just briefly now, but I beseech you to read the book thoroughly to fully understand how I derived these as well as all the implications of this hypothesis.
First, recovery: Recovery is from the disease, the whole disease, not from just individual addictions as occurs today. The reason for this is that the disease not only causes addictions by unconsciously driving the hypoic towards drugs and behaviors that change his genetically induced hypoic feelings, but also causes the two other major symptoms, 1. decision-making disasters of all varieties and 2. evaluation mistakes that lead to other kinds of disasters. [See the Hypoism flow chart at the end of the paper.] All three groups of symptoms are caused by the same problem: Low activity (high motivating) genetic alleles influencing unconscious decision-making with respect to changing feelings, maximizing “good” feelings. Life disasters, failures of recovery, and relapses of addictions are caused by these other symptoms not being covered by current addiction recovery as well as by the mistakes in current recovery methods that have no concept of the decision-making part of the disease that is causing the problems. Of course, modern medicine dictates that treatment is always best when it treats the actual disease and not just the individual symptoms. This holds for Hypoism as well. The recovery process must take into account that all symptoms are caused unconsciously and against the will of the hypoic by these low activity genetic alleles and how they influence the decision-making apparatus. For hypoics already addicted, recovery would begin in detox and rehab, requiring drastic changes there as well.
The following graphic of the decision-making apparatus shows exactly where Hypoism intervention must occur, at what I have named the ATB, the autonomous thinking belief, because the other places are unamenable to intervention, the major reason why current prevention, recovery, and treatment methods that intervene in these places are such failures. The autonomous thinking belief is the part of the DMA that causes one to believe one’s thinking, again unconsciously. Again, I didn’t invent this, that’s the way evolution manufactured our brain.
Recovery must be based on this pathophysiology working on this entire mechanism. The genes cause the thinking in the context of the instinct regulating apparatus and the ATB believes this thinking especially under the strong urging of the low activity alleles found in hypoics. The key acknowledgment of the recovering hypoic is, “My brain doesn’t work in my own best interest because of Hypoism.” Thus, recovery, not surprisingly, turns out to have to be done between two people, call them the sponsor and sponsee; not too original. One person, the sponsee, shares thoughts, feelings, and plans while the other person, the sponsor, interprets all this in the Hypoism context and gives specific directions about actions to be taken, not attempting to analyze or change anything about the person. Recovery is about what one does, not about what one doesn’t do. Recovery is about what one does, not about how one feels or thinks. What one does is decided on by the sponsor’s, not the sponsee’s, brain, thus, removing the influence the disease has on the sponsee’s actions and life.
The disease is dictated by the pathophysiology and so must be the recovery. This one to one correspondence, pathophysiology dictating recovery, is a principle of medicine. All of medicine is premised on this principle. Addictions and life mistakes of the hypoic are decisions, unconscious though they are, both caused by attempts by the hypoic using his own diseased brain to change how he feels in all areas of his life. Thus, recovery is just the opposite; surrender of this mechanism in all areas of the hypoic’s life; surrender rather than change and control because there is no way to safely or effectively change or control it because of the way this brain system has been built. The recovering hypoic must use someone else’s brain to recover and live. The surrender is willful and voluntary as is the choosing of the sponsor, two critical points. My contention is that once the underlying brain disease and its neurobiological and genetic basis is understood by the hypoic the need for the surrender will be clear and will easily follow. Hitting bottom will no longer be a prerequisite to entering recovery. This recovery method compares to the current situation where recovery is based on false theories surrounding just the addiction, the need to hit bottom in order to break denial, self-sufficiency, control, and change with the resultant dire consequences because they are opposite from what hypoics need based on the actual pathophysiology!
By the way, Hypoism says that denial, a big bugaboo concept today, is caused by self-stigmatization caused by the wrong understanding, the moral basis, of addiction and is not a part of the disease itself. Thus, so-called denial will disappear once the correct understanding of the disease replaces current theories. This same phenomenon, dissipation of denial, has occurred with every other real disease for the same reason.
This recovery is done under strict rules and methodology discussed in the book and using four steps: 1. understanding and acknowledgment of the disease, 2. realization that the disease is the problem and the cause of all personal difficulties via unconscious decision-making and evaluation mistakes, 3. voluntary and willful surrender of self-sufficiency (ATB), and 4. acceptance of decision-making directions from the sponsor. We can call this person a sponsor, or, if you like, a decision-making consultant, or whatever you feel like calling him. Even though the sponsor is incapable of giving himself this kind of help, he is able to do this for another person as long as he remains in the same kind of recovery himself and unattached emotionally with the sponsee and the outcome of his advice. Different parts of the brain and a long line of sponsors are used in these two different instances. These steps are accompanied by definite actions dictated by the actual physiology of the DMA and the pathophysiology of the genetic alteration, not according to superstition, seat of the pants, opinion, self-help books, religious values, the next right thing, or even chance. How this is accomplished is described in the book.
Having no place in recovery are: mutilating surgery, pills, that are either addictive or destructive to brain mechanisms, and therapy, that has no neurobiological way to work because conscious attempts to change a hypoic’s thinking and decision-making is neurobiologically impossible as previously explained, and, in fact, have never worked.
Fortuitously, AA incorporated some of these Hypoism principles in their recovery program although absent the neurobiological understanding behind them and this is my guess on how AA has been able to help a small number of addicts in some ways but not all and not thoroughly. Because AA has no understanding of the neurobiological basis for this process, however, AA hasn’t been able to maximize its recovery program, mixing potentially damaging methods with useful methods and not knowing which is which. Remember, religion, fellowship, and cult beliefs were used in the failed recovery program that preceded AA. The major recovery method AA added was the sponsor/sponsee business which turns out to be based on the actual neurobiological needs of the hypoic. It added sponsorship but without knowing why and how to do it and without the necessary emphasis Hypoism places on it.
The exact nature of this sponsoring method is explained and discussed in detail in my book as well as some very strict rules that must be followed to maintain maximal emotional distance between the sponsor and sponsee to avoid the pitfalls of people addiction, so-called co-dependency, from perverting the process, a pitfall known to occur frequently in current 12 step programs and without remedy in those programs. The rules to avoid people addiction and other pitfalls and the remedies for them if they do occur are also discussed in the book and are quite an important part of the how Hypoism recovery will be more effective than current recovery processes and safer as well.
The key to this recovery methodology is that self-sufficiency, believing one’s thinking, using one’s own DMA and ATB, must be abandoned in all areas of ones life with the full understanding of the neurobiological reasons behind this abandonment, the difference between blindly taking orders without understanding the need for it and willfully asking for those orders because one understands the neurobiology behind that need. My experience with this surrender technique has been that it relieves the urgency, obsession, and compulsion behind hypoic thinking, feelings, decisions, and behaviors, a major relief and quite helpful in all areas of life. It also stops present disasters and prevents future disasters from ever happening, besides preventing and ending addictions. All this is done without having to change anything about the biochemistry or thinking patterns of the hypoic. Put another way, Hypoism is about surrender and acceptance rather than control and change, the current and failed methodology. Neurobiology, not mythology, psychobabble or various behavioral biases, is behind this diametrically opposite recovery process.
This recovery is not easy to put in 25 words or less, but, to reiterate, the critical points that the recovery process must address and use are: 1. Addictions and other detrimental hypoic decisions and behaviors come out of a brain machine designed by evolution to make unconscious decisions signaled and cued by feelings. 2. This machine is regulated by genetic alleles. Low activity genetic alleles force those who are born with them to overuse neurotransmitter substitutes (chemical addictors, drugs) and instinctive behaviors (neurotransmitter stimulators or raisers, behavioral addictors) in order to change feelings. 3. This machine is located in an unconscious place in the brain not well influenced by conscious will. 4. The outcomes of this machine are believed willy nilly by the ATB and directly result in behavior, frequently detrimental to the person. 5. There’s no practical or humane place within this machine to intervene except the ATB. 6. Thus, another person must be used by the hypoic via the process of surrender for decision-making purposes. All else is accepted by the hypoic out of the understanding of the genetic neurobiology behind his decision-making limitations. Because this process frees the hypoic from the messy and confused hypoic life, he is free to pursue and maximize his genetic assets to their fullest extent under the tutelage of his sponsor, the desired outcome for all hypoics.
That this recovery is similar to some of the 12 steps conceptually, though not methodologically, is a complement to Bill and Bob and why AA happens to work, though with serious reservations and qualifications however in only about 5% of all addicts, but the differences between the two programs are why AA will never help the other 95% and never allow complete recovery in the 5% it currently superficially helps. Also, and critically, Hypoism recovery eliminates the focus on changing feelings either with “medications” or misuse of mood-altering instinctive behaviors such as superstition or any other instinct. What incorrect focus on changing and “better” feelings does is prevent the full surrender from ever occurring and thus the complete and safe recovery. In fact, the incorrect focus on changing feelings is what causes addictions in the first place. Under Hypoism, feelings are accepted, not changed. The voluntary surrender eliminates the extreme urgency behind these feelings, the, “I refuse to feel like this,” caveat made by every hypoic in the thralls of addiction or desire and thus allows compliance with the sponsor as well as altered perception of his own thoughts and feelings.
The widespread guilt and remorse of addicts are manifestations of the wrong theory, the moral theory of addictions, and thus don’t require higher power forgiveness anymore than genetic breast cancer might. Denial, a current manifestation of this moral paradigm, caused by self-stigmatization, will also disappear. This radical change in conceptualization and focus is a major difference from current pseudorecovery programs and therapies and I think will make all the difference in the world in allowing all 60 million hypoics in this country to enter real and complete recovery, once they understand the neurobiological basis for their disease.
Moreover, this recovery can be started and done in children diagnosed with Hypoism via biochemical and neurobiological means (when the technology becomes available from future research) and this is where the only possible form of real prevention is derived. Just as in other medical genetic diseases, once the in-born pathophysiology has been defined by research, the diagnosis of the disease, Hypoism, can be made in infants and the recovery methods can be begun long before any symptoms of the disease, addictions and decision-making mistakes, have occurred. The disease isn’t prevented but the symptoms can be and from the get go. Now wouldn’t that be something?! Genetic engineering is out because the genes that cause addictions all have terrific positive effects, ARE ASSETS, for the individual. We all know this empirically. The Kennedy family is a good example of this. This family has Hypoism not some superstitious curse. It explains their pluses as well as their minuses. What recovery does is limit the downside of the genes, the Hypoism symptoms, and maximize the upside of those same genes, exactly what all hypoics would want if they only knew about it. Well, here it is. And it’s all available with the correct theory and using this theory.
I must address the place of superstition, religion, or what some people call spirituality, in our future. Superstition has always been used by people disturbed and ashamed by symptoms of diseases of all sorts, whether they knew they had diseases or not. Like any other instinct, use of the superstition instinct makes people feel better even if it doesn’t make them better. That’s because it stimulates the reward cascade just like all other instincts and all addicting drugs. What modern medicine has done is to compartmentalize medical recovery from superstitious recovery. The two can work together as long as they’re not confused as equivalent. Medical based recovery must be used to deal with the pathophysiology of the disease. Superstition or as you call it, spirituality, has a definite place, but it’s not in the recovery but rather in supporting people in their recoveries. This is no different in Hypoism than it would be in other diseases such as in diabetes or cancer. Thus, hypoics do the correct recovery based on the medical pathophysiology and support this recovery with their faith if they so choose. Every hypoic therefore has access to the correct form of recovery based on pathophysiology from the disease. Using superstition in addictions as a primary modality of recovery rather than as individual and private support leads to three severe complications, all of which have hurt and are severely hurting addicts today: 1. Because the cause of addictions is touted as spiritually based, the moral basis of addictions is maintained and addicts take the moral blame for their addictions, personally and publicly. This has led to centuries of unnecessary guilt, remorse, humiliation, damnation, stigmatization, self-punishment, suicide, and discrimination. 2. Because recovery is based on the supernatural, the real recovery from the pathophysiological basis is ignored, not looked for, and not used, thus, the absence of the valid understanding of the cause of addictions, failed recoveries, and relapses. 3. Because superstition is touted as playing such a huge role in addictions, addicts who can’t hack that stuff stay away from recovery altogether and die. Thus, we need to compartmentalize the use of “spirituality” and a higher power even though it has been thought to be historically important. Remove it from the cause and treatment, which it isn’t part of anyway, and let superstitious people use it privately as support, where it belongs, under the regulation of their sponsors and under the caveats in my book which discusses the downside of using any mood changers as part of recovery, be they drugs or instincts.
The implications of this new and, I think, correct interpretation of the science of addictions are enormous and earthshaking. Below is a table summarizing many of these implications as compared to the current theories on addiction causation that I lump together with the name The Psychological/Religious Paradigm, the P/R Paradigm:
Table Comparing The Hypoism and Psychological/ Religious Paradigm(s).
To show how diametrically opposed they are and why.
Current and Past Paradigms:
PSYCHOLOGICAL/RELIGIOUS (P/R) PARADIGM
DEFINITION OF ADDICTIONS
Use of a substance, person, idea, belief, or behavior to change how you feel against your will.
The compulsive use of a substance resulting in physical, psychological, or social harm to the user and continued use despite harm. It is a psychological and behavioral syndrome that is characterized by 1) loss of control, 2) compulsive drug use, and 3) continued use despite harm. (The specific definitions of underlined words are impossible to find. And, when did an addict ever have control?)
No underlying disease. Each addiction in each addict is its own "disease."
CAUSE OF ADDICTIONS
Genetic diversity (see hypothetical population distribution curve below) of genes making up the "Feel O. K. System" (FOKS), the neurobiological evaluator of the DMA. Causes a critical deficiency in the FOKS activity in some people, which inexorably causes Hypoism. The hypoic FOKS defines Hypoism and causes hypoics to be addicts. Only hypoics can be addicts.
Multiple unproven complex causes:
Genetic "predisposition," psychological causes, socioeconomic influences, environmental influences (peer pressure, learned from family members, dysfunctional family, poor role models, poor upbringing, divorce, sexual abuse by family members, physical abuse by family members, inadequate religious training, various undefined stresses, post traumatic disorder, etc.). Whatever anyone wants to attribute the addiction to after the fact. None of these causes have ever been proven, just associated with addictions in a backward direction, after the fact.
Anyone is capable of being an addict.
Preposterous "Hijacked brain" model
Difficulties in evaluation of self and situations. Difficulties in decision-making of all kinds leading to disasters in the future. Part of the Hypoism entity.
Hodgepodge of etiologically unrelated but coexisting "psychopathologies" and "personality disorders" requiring separate therapies and treatments.
ACCORDING TO PARADIGM,
CAN ADDICTIONS BE CONTROLED?
No treatment, only recovery.
(See glossary for discussion of history of and usefulness of rehabilitation centers and programs. They were started in order to give detoxed addicts a little time free of their addiction prior to entering A.A. at home. A.A. is where recovery occurs. This concept has been perverted into some sort of "treatment" for addictions along with its inevitable "aftercare" programs.
Multiple (but unproven) treatments such as rehab centers, psychotherapy, severe punishments (jail), various medications (methadone, antabuse, bromocriptine, Prozac, and other serotonin re-uptake blockers, etc.), religious conversion, acupuncture, meditation, psychoanalysis, will power, group therapy, you name it, etc. All baseless, but profitable. Has had 60 years of using this paradigm but has not one single scientifically valid experiment to show that what they call treatment has any more effect than chance. These gurus and charlatans offer nonexistent power to powerless people and blame the addict when he fails to get sober. Uses infomercial techniques, such as live anecdotes and testimony of so-called experts and success stories, as proof of the validity of the paradigm instead of valid experimental results.
True Prevention. Hypoics are born, not made.
Early diagnosis of one's Hypoism can lead to early entrance into recovery. This allows children to enter Hypoic's Not-Anonymous and begin recovery before ever touching a drug. This is the complete opposite to what we have today.
Multiple unproven attempts: Education, threats, lectures extolling the dangers of addictions, advertisements in the media, movies such as "reefer madness," warnings, various groups against drugs, drug war, spending money on programs against drugs, such as midnight basketball, etc. No evidence whatsoever that these prevention attempts or programs prevent anything.
12 step Hypoism recovery process as discussed in book. It is done between the sponsee and the sponsor. Process includes acknowledgment, realization, surrender of control, and acceptance.
Bypasses deficient FOKS and ATB. Counter-instinctive recovery.
No recovery within this paradigm. As long as self-sufficiency is maintained, there is no recovery. A hypoic is not capable of control over addictions or of changing himself into a recovered addict in terms of addictions, evaluation difficulties, or decision-making problems. See definition of relapse in glossary of book.
ROLE OF SELF-SUFFICIENCY
Irrelevant and counterproductive. Leads to short and long term relapse. Is surrendered.
Self-sufficiency is the ultimate aim of the P/R paradigm. Ensures relapse.
EFFECTS ON THE INDIVIDUAL
He is free to pursue his assets absent his liabilities in all areas of his life. Full acceptance of self.
Continued struggle with all symptoms caused by the disease. Relapse. Recurrent fear, disasters, and lack of fulfillment in all areas of life.
PUBLIC AND LEGAL POLICY IMPLICATIONS
Decriminalization and destigmatization via promotion and acceptance of the Hypoism paradigm, acceptance of the active as well as the recovering addict. Cooperation with the addict in terms of "harm reduction" and availability of detoxes and rehabs (as defined in the book) and recovery.
Disappearance of P.I.M.M.P.A.L. complex.
Punishment, mandated treatment, stigmatization, ostracism, humiliation, discrimination in all areas of life, maximizes control over addicts, addictions, and addictors. Harm reduction is opposed because it "sends the wrong message to the populous that we condone drugs."
Maintenance of the P.I.M.M.P.A.L. complex control which ensures minimal recovery and perpetuates itself.
MORAL PRINCIPLE AS BASIS OF POLICIES
Acceptance of human instincts and human nature based on them and evolution of the human animal.
Man is made in the image of God and is fully in control of his thoughts and behavior. Born innocent and becomes bad for a variety of reasons.
THE PIMMPAL COMPLEX
As you can see, Hypoism does exactly what we all want and ends what we don’t want, changes that are impossible to accomplish under the current incorrect and diametrically opposite theories and their self-perpetuated PIMMPAL Complex institutions. This clearly shows the need for us to make an about face and go in a completely new direction, a revolutionary direction.
Of course, there needs to be a massive research assault done on and with this theory. And this is where hypoics can use their power. Hypoics need to take back control of their disease from the experts we turned it over to and who have failed us. Hypoics need to unite to from an activist force for changing the theory as well as the recovery and the research direction. We need to use our influence to change the theory as well as prevention, treatment, including detox, rehab, and long term recovery methods and critically the financing of all this to remove profits from their administration. Money, business, religion, and government control have warped the field of addictions irrevocably and must be removed from influencing how we deal with our disease. The field of addictionology will not do this on their own because they are stuck going in the opposite direction, one of mind control with or without drugs, change, moralisms, coercion, and punishment, as well as profiting from our suffering. In fact, they have ignored and censored Hypoism for the full 12 years I have been informing them about it for the above reasons. This has been the most sickening experience I’ve had over this time period except for the fact that AA people have been even more closed to it. Hopefully this conference will help getting AA’s to read and evaluate this theory for their own sake and the sake of their kids. My experience with AA, however, doesn’t give me much hope that they can or will incorporate Hypoism into their program. AA has become a cult with all the absolutist, closed-minded, and blind faith attributes of a cult. AA needs to acknowledge this and do something about it, but as with all other cults, they most likely will never do it. That would be the best solution to the mess in additions, having AA reorganize itself around Hypoism while continuing its terrific administrative base but AA doesn’t seem to have the mechanism necessary to transform and modernize itself in this way. Moreover, AA itself needs to be studied for informational purposes but this too has been ruled out by AA itself. Thus, we need new institutions for those interested in going the new way.
An example of the kind of research that could move things along quickly has already been agreed to by a project director at NIDA, Harold Gordon, but requires me to find a cooperative rehab center in which to do it. It is a long term, minimum five years, controlled and scientific comparison of Hypoism rehab and recovery versus standard rehab and recovery with all aspects documented with forensic and real follow-ups rather than questionnaires and phone calls. Besides being the first long-term and fully documented study of standard recovery ever to be done on standard rehab, a study in itself that we have dire need for, it would also show whether the Hypoism theory has any promise in improving on this and be impetus for basic science research into Hypoism as well. A brief proposal is on my web site at: http://www.nvo.com/hypoism/hypoismtreatmentresearchproposal/
However, I have not been able to elicit the interest or cooperation of any rehab in my vicinity. I wonder why? Maybe someone here can help remove this road block enabling us to begin moving forward on this front at least. Success in this realm may stimulate open minded research within the field in other needed areas that are currently ignored.
I have initiated two organizations to help hypoics get moving in the right direction irrespective of what AA and the field of addictionology, current rigid and backwards institutions, do. First, I have formed a tax exempt 501-c-3 charity, advocacy, and activist organization, the National Association for the Advancement and Advocacy of Addicts, the N4A, made up by hypoics and for hypoics absent any conflicts of interest be they financial, governmental, medical/psychiatric, treatment/therapeutic, institutional, or religious. The brochure of this organization has been handed out. In it is presented its purposes and goals. Second, I have devised a recovery program administratively similar to AA called Hypoics Not-Anonymous, but about the whole disease not just individual addictions, inclusive, not exclusive and divisive, and absent use of superstition and ritual (behavioral addictors derived from the superstition instinct), based solely on the actual disease, not false beliefs about the disease or its symptoms coming from thin air, psychobabble or from mysterious supernatural forces. Anonymity and the other traditions were once important issues, but today these are major inhibitors of progress, both medically as well as socially. To confront every aspect of our disease we must do all this publicly.
It is clear to me that hypoics must take responsibility of their disease and take back their power from the self-interested and phony “experts” and gurus for our own sake and the sake of our kids and families. We must be a force for changing the theory, improving the recovery and prevention, and changing the draconian and discriminatory public attitudes and policies our people are powerless over as individuals today. The N4A follows the example of all discriminated minority groups, for example, the NAACP. Organized under the auspices of the search for and use of the correct theory of addiction causation and its derived policies using purely valid science rather than an institution or institutions based on unrelated conflicts of interest, philosophy or mythology all hypoics can unite and become a force to help themselves and their families irrespective of what the rest of the world does or believes. I think the rest of the world will eventually come around once they understand this is all based on valid science and we show that we can manage the entire mess as responsible and sensible people.
Summary: We have the development of a hypothesis of a genetic brain disease called Hypoism that unconsciously causes addictions and other damaging symptoms in just a subset of the population inexorably and against their will. Because of this all policies, prevention, recovery, and public policies, must be focused on these people’s disease not the addictors or the addictions. The current control/change, psychobabble/religious, paradigm and its policies haven’t worked, don’t work, and will never work in these areas because they can’t work; its incorrect theory says anyone can be an addict, becomes an addict because of the willful and immoral/psychobabble misuse and abuse of addictors and thus control of addictions must focus on the addictors, addicts, and addictions. These are diametrically opposite paradigms. The future of addictions depends on the use of valid scientific method to distinguish between the two of these opposite paradigms. I have discussed why this has already been accomplished and that addicts must get organized and united to critically evaluate this accomplishment and use it in their own best interests. No one else is going to do this for us. I provide several organizations established for the sole purpose of doing this.
The N4A brochure:
My entire web site at: http://www.hypoism.com , and my book, Hypoic’s Handbook that can be obtained from the web site at: http://www.nvo.com/hypoism/picturesofthebookandhypoismstuff/
Start with the book because the web site adds to the concepts developed in the book. For conceptual and scientific background read everything listed on the bibliography page on the web site as well as the reference articles referred to in the revised 3rd millennium speech from the web site at: http://www.nvo.com/hypoism/3rdmillenniumspeech1revised/