cont. from page 1.
The text from my book is in blue:
LeDoux discusses therein [his book] the
neuroanatomy and functional significance of some of the most important
parts of the limbic system. In particular, he notes the roles
played by the amygdala, hypothalamus, anterior thalamus, hippocampus,
cingulate cortex, lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (the main
anatomical areas of the limbic system) in processing external
stimuli from the senses, and internal stimuli from the cortex
(thoughts) into emotional feelings (consciousness), actions (behavior),
memories, bodily sensations, and emotional assessments of these
stimuli. I will summarize briefly his conclusions, which are critical
to an understanding of why the psychological-religious (conscious
control) paradigm has no way to deal with addictions and why the
Hypoism paradigm (surrender of control) does:
Brain systems that generate emotional behavior are highly
conserved through many levels of evolutionary history; that the
neural organization of particular emotional behavioral systems
is pretty similar across species; [that] what it means to be human
involves an appreciation of the ways in which we are like other
animals as well as the ways in which we are different. [Our
neurological systems dealing with emotions have evolved over hundreds
of millions of years]
When one of these evolutionarily old systems (like the system
that produces defensive behaviors in the presence of danger) goes
about its business in a conscious brain, emotional feelings (like
being afraid) are the result. Otherwise, the brain accomplishes
its behavioral goals in the absence
of robust awareness. And absence of
awareness is the rule of mental life, rather than the exception,
throughout the animal kingdom. If we do not need conscious feelings
to explain what we would call emotional behavior in some animals,
then we do not need them to explain the same behavior in humans.
Emotional responses are, for the most part, generated unconsciously.
[These systems function at an unconscious level]
Conscious feelings are in one sense no different from other
states of consciousness [which] occur when the system responsible
for awareness becomes privy to the activity occurring in unconscious
processing systems. [Conscious awareness of emotional processes
are rare and unpredictable]
Emotions are things that happen to us rather than things
we will to occur. We have little direct control over our emotional
reactions. While conscious control over emotions is weak, emotions
can flood consciousness. This is so because the wiring of the
brain at this point in our evolutionary history is such that connections
from the emotional systems to the cognitive systems are stronger
than the connections from the cognitive systems to the emotional
systems. [Conscious control of emotional responses is nonexistent]
One of the major conclusions about cognition and emotion
that comes from this approach is that both seem to operate unconsciously,
with only the outcome of cognitive or emotional processing entering
awareness and occupying our conscious minds, and only in some
instances. [The thinking process and associated feelings
derived from it are again, for the most part, occurring unconsciously]
The critical conclusion he reaches about
emotions by the end of the book is:
- 6. You can have an emotional
feeling without being conscious of the eliciting stimulus, without
the actual eliciting stimulus being represented in a short-term
cortical buffer and held in working memory. Stimuli that are not
noticed, or that are noticed but their implications aren't, can
unconsciously trigger emotional behaviors and visceral responses.
In such situations, the stimulus content of working memory will
be amplified by the arousal and feedback that result, causing
you to attribute the arousal and bodily feelings to the stimuli
in working memory. However, because the stimuli in working memory,
[what is in your face at that moment], did not trigger the brain,
the situation will be misdiagnosed. Moreover, if there is nothing
particular occupying working memory, you will be in a situation
where your feelings are not understood. If emotions are triggered
by stimuli that are processed unconsciously, you will not be able
to later reflect back on those experiences and explain why they
occurred with any degree of accuracy. Contrary to the primary
supposition of cognitive appraisal theories, the core of an emotion
is not an introspectively accessible conscious representation.
Even when we do have introspective access, the conscious content
is not likely to be what triggered the emotional responses in
the first place. The emotional responses and the conscious content
are both products of specialized emotion systems that operate
unconsciously. [Conscious misinterpretation of the emotional
underpinnings of decision-making and the resultant behavior is
the rule rather than the exception]
The above principles of emotional processing
(cortical-limbic interaction) form the basis of the Hypoism paradigm's
representation of the decision-making apparatus and its function
in producing the peculiarities of the addiction process (discussed
later in the chapter) and why our current distorted, fanciful,
and unfounded view of this process has led to the P/R paradigm's
mistakes in its perception of addictions, in particular, that
addictions are consciously derived, a choice (willful), and that
conscious control could have any utility in prevention or treatment.
I want you to re-read the blue material
over until you comprehend the enormity of its implications in
terms of how the human brain deals with instinctive, emotional,
thinking and decision-making, of Limbic origin, the neurologic
origin of all addictions. If it hasn't been clarified by your
Hypoism readings to date, let me clarify it once again: addictions
arise from the instinct evaluation and decision-making mechanism
deep in the Limbic system of the brain. The above material
explains the inability of conscious (cortical) thinking to effect,
for the most part, Limbic decisions. I call this phenomenon Corticolimbic
dissociation, a concept that explains many other human quarks,
discussed in detail in my book because of its importance, such
as all forms of unconscious discrimination, self-righteousness,
and genocide. In hypoics this is magnified by the hypoic neurobiological
and genetic deficiencies. The above material is critical to comprehending
the paradoxical responses hypoics have to conscious attempts at
preventing or intervening upon addictions and their use of addictors
(drugs and instinctive behaviors). This piece of the addiction
puzzle is just one of several discussed in this article that the
P/R paradigm ignores in its addiction paradigm and is the main
missing piece that nullifies their paradigm. To reiterate:
Conscious attempts to control Hypoism, a disease of limbic origin,
and its resultant symptoms are to no avail by dint of the design
of human neurological connections between different parts of the
brain involved in addiction causation, on the one hand, and attempts
to consciously control them on the other. The history of these
failed attempts is clear. Persisting in these attempts is stubborn
and stupid. They don't work, and this material on the Limbic system
is why. Any valid and useful paradigm on addiction must reconcile
this neurology. Hypoism does while the P/R paradigm doesn't. The
P/R paradigm is ignoring this stuff and fails to deal with addictions
because of it. If you ignore it as well you will have the same
results, stuck and lost in the P/R paradigm of hell. As you will
see below, and more so in the book, Hypoism takes this neurology
into account in its recovery process, the only comprehensive addiction
paradigm to do so. This material is the crux of the addiction
conundrum today and only by acknowledging its influence will we
be able to move on to overall realistic recovery and policies
The motivational forces working
within the hypoic's brain urging him/her to use addictors against
his/her will work by these unconscious mechanisms, unconscious
by the nature of their neuroanatomical connections, not by some
goofy mythological construct such as Freud's Repression or other
such nonsense. The unconscious nature of the decision to use addictors
and the biological nature of the underpinnings of addictability
completes the picture of addictions we have for ever misperceived.
The P/R paradigm, ignorant and ignoring of this work, insists
addictions are conscious choices, while the hypoism paradigm,
realizing the essence of addiction as unconscious, puts this information
to work to understand addictions realistically rather than in
the same old biased and unforgiving way.
Very few people are aware of this work
by LeDoux even though his book was reviewed in the NY Times a
few years ago. I don't think it was appreciated by the P/R paradigm
people who read the Times and clearly not by anyone else either.
But, to me, it was one of the critical pieces to the jigsaw puzzle
of addiction paradigms and in particular, the piece of the puzzle
concerning the obvious unconscious nature of addictions which
allows for the demographic equanimity and inexorability of addictions
despite education, familiarity, and knowing better. This final
piece of information about how the brain works in the hypoic,
genetically setup to be an addict via Hypoism, segues us into
the final issues of addiction, that
prevention, education, treatment, and
criminalization (blame) of addictions and addicts not only don't
work for the above reason but make things so much worse.
Before I do that, I need to insert an aside:
I can't complete the history of the development of Hypoism in
the wake of the P/R paradigm without mentioning the key role Alcoholics
Anonymous, originated by Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob, has played in
my deciphering Hypoism, particularly its recovery. First, without
the benefit of AA I wouldn't have been sober long enough to have
had the time to do the research necessary to arrive at the concepts
that allowed me to thread Hypoism into a discernible and cohesive
hypothesis. For this I am forever grateful. Second, and equally
as important, is that after completing the neurobiological puzzle
discussed above, I looked back at AA to query why it and only
it has been as successful as it has been over the years despite
having stalled at about 5% overall hypoic recovery. One must realize
that prior to AA there was no success whatsoever with addictions
using psychotherapy, medications, and religious transformations.
This is true today as well. Remember, absent AA there would be
no word recovery because recovery wouldn't exist.
All past and current recovery has originated in AA despite what
its critics, copy cats, and thieves might argue to the contrary.
The question I had to ask AA had to do with not so much why it
isn't more successful but why is it successful at all in an area
where there is no other real success. In order to assess AA I
had to look at all the various parts of AA: Spiritualism, fellowship,
support, sponsorship, service, 12 steps, making coffee and setting
up for meetings, meetings, sharing, leading meetings, and many
others. Aside from the important ancillary modalities which had
been used in other unsuccessful programs including spiritualism
and ritual, one aspect stood out in importance: Sponsorship. How
does sponsorship when done as AA suggests it be done relate to
the principles of Hypoism? AA says, let your sponsor run
your recovery. This little phrase, when done thoroughly,
relates exactly to the unconscious DMA and nature of addictions
as defined in Hypoism (as opposed to all other failed methods
attempting recovery utilizing conscious mechanisms and therapy).
That Hypoism and its resultant addictions are unconscious in origin
means that conscious controls of various sorts can't work, but
rather surrender of control to another person in recovery can
work. This principle is the essence of AA recovery even though
most everyone thinks its a different one, spiritualism. Spiritualism
may well help someone stop an addiction, but instead of recovery,
it's rather a switch from one addiction, alcohol , to another,
spiritualism . This is not recovery because recovery must be from
the underlying disease of the DMA, Hypoism, not from the particular
addiction. This unrealized mistake is the reason current methods
of recovery are so ineffective. Recovery only happens when one
surrenders his/her decision-making to one's sponsor, when one
uses someone elses brain to help make decisions. It is the unconscious
and self-sufficient decision-making that gets hypoics into trouble
with addictions and it's the surrender that results in recovery.
Of course, when one reviews the complete pathophysiology of Hypoism
and addictions in Hypoic's Handbook, it becomes completely obvious
that recovery needs to be from the Hypoism not just the stopping
of the addiction or replacement of it with another. AA showed
me that Hypoism was correct in all aspects in addition to its
neurobiology; the behavioral decision-making implications of its
neurobiology as well. These implications are what the current
P/R paradigm misses completely, mostly because it doesn't fathom
the unconscious DMA and how and where in the brain it acts. Thus,
AA completed the picture of Hypoism for me without understanding
anything about it itself. Funny how these things work. I only
hope that AA learns about Hypoism so that it is able to grow and
include all hypoics as well as focus its recovery on the essence
of recovery that it invented but simultaneously misuses and underuses
because it doesn't itself know what its own essence is. Instead,
AA uses all its modalities superstitiously without having any
perspective on which works and which are merely ancillary. In
doing so AA remains superstitious and confusing, thus limiting
Finally, recovery from addictions under
the auspices of the P/R paradigm is currently a hit or miss adventure
with much relapse and failure and only about a 5% long term success
rate. Most of this success with addictions is due to AA and other
12 step programs. This dismal success rate is because no one understands
what causes addictions and how they work to perpetuate themselves
in addicts. Real and maximal recovery from addictions can only
arise from understanding and using the real paradigm of addictions,
Hypoism, because it understands addictions in all its aspects.
I will not go into depth about recovery here because to fully
understand the recovery program dictated by Hypoism, one needs
to understand Hypoism in depth first. This only happens upon reading
the whole book, Hypoic's Handbook, when all its concepts are completely
understood. I will say this, however: If and when Hypoism is ever
fully accepted and used by our society, the picture of addictions
in this country and the world will be one that is totally unimaginable
today. That I can assure you.
One word of warning I need to give about
how the P/R paradigm approaches treatment. The aim of the P/R
paradigm, because it has no grasp on the true pathophysiology
of addictions, is to use the limited pathophysiology it does know,
that of the genetic neurotransmitter deficiencies in addicts and
the receptors of the reward system, to control addictions and
to change addicts into nondangerous addicts. This has led to the
two approaches of treatment, discounting the psychotherapy attempts
to control addictions which always have been failures. These two
chemical approaches are 1) give the addicts a replacement
legal addiction, such as methadone or SSRI's or SSNI's,
etc., so they will feel too good to use illegal drugs, and 2)
give them reward system blockers so they can't get addicted to
illegal drugs because they won't be able to get high. The first
method is fraudulent but good for society (in their malignant opinion). The second method is
criminal, in my opinion, because the chemically altered addicts
won't even be able to feel normal amounts of enjoyment and accomplishments
since these natural highs will also be blocked by
the drugs that prevent addictions. In contrast, Hypoism recovery
doesn't require drugs or therapy of any kind and frees the addicts
to be the people they've always wanted to be but without having
their addictions interfere. You tell me which is better for addicts
As much as we would like to prevent addictions
by conscious means including education, stigmatization, ostracism,
criminalization, and the drug war3, the effects
of these attempts will all be determined by the actual neurophysiology
of the entity that causes addictions. Like it or not, this is
the case. If the neurophysiology that dictates addiction ignores
these efforts, redoubling them will have no positive effect, and,
in fact will make things absolutely worse by forcing addicts underground
where the damage occurs. This is exactly what is happening today,
if you haven't noticed. Of course, this is exactly why these methods
have not only not changed the history of addictions, but have,
instead, riddled the landscape with dead bodies instead of preventing
addiction and improving recovery. Also, of course, we can continue
to ignore the science (or pick and choose which science we will
use and which we won't) behind addictions and continue our past
and present into the future out of deep irrational hate for addicts
and self-righteousness. On the other hand, if we are truly sincere
about wanting to prevent the consequences of addiction and help
produce maximal recovery among addicts of all varieties, then
we must revise our policies in accord with the actual pathophysiology
of addictions, Hypoism, instead of our unfounded scientifically
fantasized and biased beliefs.
This was a short history of Hypoism up
through today, correct but ignored. The future history of addictions
will be written by those of you who read this article and the
book, Hypoic's Handbook, and follow its imperatives. Either you
will take Hypoism seriously and improve the future or you will
ignore it and continue the past. This choice is yours. But now,
at least, you have the choice because you have discovered an alternative
paradigm based on all the science there is known to man as of
today, not the limited science the P/R paradigm will allow you
to know and read and meant to keep you ignorant, afraid, and passive.
Information is power only if you use it.
3. These attempts to control addicts and addictions result
in the opposite effects, worsening of addictions and damage to
addicts and their families. It is counterintuitive, but of course,
that's Hypoism vs. the P/R paradigm, counterintuitive but based
on science. Frequently, science is exactly this way. That's why
the scientific method was invented, to counter the mistakes caused
by human intuition.
Table Comparing The Hypoism and Psychological
To show how diametrically opposed they
are and why.
||Current and Past Paradigm:
PSYCHOLOGICAL/RELIGIOUS (P/R) PARADIGM
|DEFINITION OF ADDICTIONS
||Use of a substance, person, idea, belief, or behavior to change how you feel against your will.
||The compulsive use of a substance resulting in physical, psychological, or social harm to the user and continued use despite harm. It is a psychological and behavioral syndrome that is characterized by 1) loss of control, 2) compulsive drug use, and 3) continued use despite harm. (The specific definitions of underlined words are impossible to find. And, when did an addict ever have control?)
||HYPOISM||No underlying disease. Each addiction in each addict is its own "disease."
|CAUSE OF ADDICTIONS
Genetic diversity (see hypothetical population distribution curve below) of genes making up the "Feel O. K. System" (FOKS). Causes a critical deficiency in the FOKS activity in some people, which inexorably causes Hypoism. The hypoic FOKS defines Hypoism and causes hypoics to be addicts. Only hypoics can be addicts.
|Multiple unproven complex causes:
Genetic "predisposition," psychological causes, socioeconomic influences, environmental influences (peer pressure, learned from family members, dysfunctional family, poor role models, poor upbringing, divorce, sexual abuse by family members, physical abuse by family members, inadequate religious training, various undefined stresses, post traumatic disorder, etc.). Whatever anyone wants to attribute the addiction to after the fact. None of these causes have ever been proven, just associated with addictions in a backward direction, after the fact.
Anyone is capable of being an addict.
Preposterous "Hijacked brain" model
||Difficulties in evaluation of self and situations. Difficulties in decision-making of all kinds leading to disasters in the future. Part of the Hypoism entity.
||Hodgepodge of etiologically unrelated but coexisting "psychopathologies" and "personality disorders" requiring separate therapies and treatments.
|ACCORDING TO PARADIGM,
CAN ADDICTIONS BE CONTROLED?
|TREATMENT||No treatment, only recovery.
(See glossary for discussion of history of and usefulness of rehabilitation centers and programs. They were started in order to give detoxed addicts a little time free of their addiction prior to entering A.A. at home. A.A. is where recovery occurs. This concept has been perverted into some sort of "treatment" for addictions along with its inevitable "aftercare" programs.
|Multiple (but unproven) treatments such as rehab centers, psychotherapy, severe punishments (jail), various medications (methadone, antabuse, bromocriptine, Prozac, and other serotonin re-uptake blockers), religious conversion, acupuncture, meditation, psychoanalysis, will power, group therapy, you name it, etc. All baseless, but profitable. Has had 60 years of using this paradigm but has not one single scientifically valid experiment to show that what they call treatment has any more effect than chance. These gurus and charlatans offer nonexistent power to powerless people and blame the addict when he fails to get sober. Uses infomercial techniques, such as live anecdotes and testimony of so-called experts and success stories, as proof of the validity of the paradigm instead of valid experimental results.
|PREVENTION||None. Hypoics are born, not made.
However, early recognition of one's Hypoism can lead to early entrance into recovery.
|Multiple unproven attempts: Education, threats, lectures extolling the dangers of addictions, advertisements in the media, movies such as "reefer madness," warnings, various groups against drugs, drug wardrug war, spending money on programs against drugs, such as midnight basketball, etc. No evidence whatsoever that these prevention attempts or programs prevent anything.
|RECOVERY||12 step Hypoism recovery process as discussed in book. Process includes acknowledgment, realization, surrender of control, and acceptance.
Bypasses deficient FOKS and ATB. Counter-instinctive recovery.
|No recovery within this paradigm. As long as self-sufficiency is maintained, there is no recovery. A hypoic is not capable of control over addictions or of changing himself into a recovered addict in terms of addictions, evaluation difficulties, or decision-making problems. See definition of relapse in glossary.
|ROLE OF SELF-SUFFICIENCY
||Irrelevant and counterproductive. Leads to short and long term relapse.
||Self-sufficiency is the ultimate aim of the P/R paradigm. Ensures relapse.
|PUBLIC AND LEGAL POLICY IMPLICATIONS
||Decriminalization, destigmatization via promotion and acceptance of the Hypoism paradigm, acceptance of the active as well as the recovering addict. Cooperation with the addict in terms of "harm reduction" and availability of detoxes and rehabs (as defined in the book) and recovery.
Disappearance of P.I.M.M.P.A.L. complex.
|Punishment, mandated treatment, stigmatization, ostracism, humiliation, discrimination in all areas of life, maximizes control over addicts, addictions, and addictors. Harm reduction is opposed because it "sends the wrong message to the populous that we condone drugs."
Maintenance of the P.I.M.M.P.A.L. complex control which ensures minimal recovery and perpetuates itself.
|MORAL PRINCIPLE AS BASIS OF POLICIES
||Acceptance of human instincts and human nature based on them and evolution of the human animal.