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Hypoism Issues

Role of Dopamine in Addiction Causation

Theory of Addiction - Hypoism Hypothesis

Why drug use is unconscious and against one's willfulness - not volitional

Misuse of the word choice in addictions



What Am I Angry About? - Don't Ask Me This Again

Disease Concept - A Perspective


Page Directory of this Site with Explanations and Links

The History of the Proof of Hypoism in the Wake of the P/R Paradigm page 1.

History page 2

Why Addiction Experts and Other People Are Ignoring Hypoism

Strange Brew


The Paradigm Vacuum in Addictions Today


What Does An Addiction Expert Know?

The Hypoism Addiction Hypothesis - An Evolutionary Psychology Perspective

Addiction Questionnaire

Misconceptions of addictions and addicts

What's Hypoism? What's an Addiction?


Why We Need Hypoism: A Comparison of the Principles and Consequences between the two Paradigms

Entitled to Your Opinion? Not Anymore.

HYPOICMAN: A non-recovering, unimpressed Hypoic

The Field of Addictionology: A Golfing Analogy


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Hypoism Treatment Research

The Addiction Treatment Fraud Finally Exposed

Hypoism Treatment Research Proposal



The National Association for the Advancement and Advocacy of Addicts

Make A Contribution To The N4A

Addict Discrimination Documentation

Social Innovations Award 2000 for The N4A

Third Millennium N4A Conference Keynote Address on Hypoism - Pathophysiology in Addictions vs. Superstition

N4A Goes on the Offensive - Suggesting Real Action

The Verdict

Blind Faith?

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Letters from book readers

Title Page of Book

Book Blurb

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Back Cover

Table of Contents



Opening Statement

Chapter 1

Vision For The Future

Outcomes of Hypoic's Handbook


Book Corrections

Harm reduction prototype: Swiss PROVE program

Book Reviews

The Phoenix Magazine

Hypoics Not-Anonymous

Hypoics Not-Anonymous

Things You Can Do

What you can do---

My Kids

Special Links

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Addiction Links on the Web

Addiction Genetics

Recent Genetic Studies on Various Addictions from a Large Twin Registry

Genetic Studies page 2.

Gateway theory finally disproven

Celera Discovers Millions of Tiny Genetic Differences in People

Interesting Addiction Science

Clinically Important Neurotransmitter Deficiencies

Hypoism Magazine-Articles by and for Hypoics


#1 Hatred, #2 The Words: Opinion, Belief, and Knowledge, #3 Hate Addiction

#4 The Drug War War, #5 Evolution vs. Creationism Revisited for Addictions

#6 American Society for Addiction Medicine Statement for Recovering Physicians

#7 Issues Peculiar to the Disease of Addictions

#8 Critique of Alan Lechner's (NIH), "The Hijacked Brain Hypothesis."

#8a. Update!! Dr. Leshner recently makes a change

#9 MY STORY - The Doctor Drug War - Wrong and Wasteful p.1, 1/6/00

The Doctor Drug War p.2

Doctor Drug War p.3

Doctor Drug War p.4

Doctor Drug War p.5

Affidavit for judicial review of NYS Dept. of Ed.

#10 The Superstition Instinct 3/1/00

#11-Conflict of Interest in Addiction Research

#12 - Controlled Drinking Lands On Its Ass

#13 - The Kennedy Curse or Kennedy Hypoism?

#14 - The Lord's Prayer for Hypoics

#15 - Replacing Alan Leshner is the only way to end the Drug War

#16 - The Brain Addiction Mechanism and the COGA Study

#17 - Letter to the director of the National Academy of Medicine's Board on Neurobiology and Behavior Health on Addictions

#18 - Is Addiction Voluntary, A Choice, as Leshner and NIDA Insist?

#19 - Bush's Alcoholism and Lies

#20 - A P/R Paradigm Addict - "Cured?"

#21 - Congress Misled and Lied to by NIAAA

#22 - Special Letter to the Times on Addiction Genetics

#23 - JAMA Editor Publishes According to His Beliefs, Not Science

#24 - Smoking as Gateway Drug. I Don't Think So!


#25 - One Less Heroin Addict. But At What Cost?

#26 - An Open Letter to the Judge who Sentences Robert Downey, Jr.

#27 - Letter To Schools About The Pride Program Against Drugs

#28 - A Letter To Bill Moyers, Close To Home, and PBS


#30 - Brookhaven Labs Provide More Evidence For Hypoism

#31 - Addiction Prevention Revisited


#33 - NIDA Is Close But No Cigar

#34 - Bush's Addict Discrimination and Hypocricy Begins

#35 - Maya Angelou's, "Still I Rise."

#36 - Leshner Lies To Congress

#37 - Addiction Combos

#38 Brain tumor proves Hypoism hypothesis

#39: So-called Availability Debunked as Contributor of Addictions

#40 - Hypoism Reproduced By A Pill



The Hypoism Blog - The Addiction Blog

The Addiction Blog 4/17/11 -

The Addiction Blog 9/14/10 - 4/16/11

The Addiction Blog 11/12/09 - 9/14/10

The Addiction Blog 7/23/09 - 11/09/09

The Addiction Blog 5/16/09 - 7/22/09

The Addiction Blog 3/3/09 - 5/13/09

The Addiction Blog 8/3/08 - 3/3/09

The Addiction Blog 4/1/07 - 8/3/08

old letters

My NY Times Letters to the Editor page 1.

My NY Times Letters to the Editor page 2.

My NY Times Letters to the Editor page 3.

My NY Times Letters to the Editor page 4.

My NY Times Letters to the Editor page 5.

My New York Times Letters to the Editor page 6.

My Letters to the editor of the NY Times page 7.

My Letters to the Editor of the NY Times page 8.

NY Times Letters Page 9.

New York Times Letters Page 10

My NYT Letters page 11

NY Times Letters page 12.

NY Times letters p. 13

Letters to the NY Times page 14.

Letters to Newsday

Letters To The Los Angeles Times

Creationism/Evolution Letter to BAM 11-25-05


Committee for Physician Health Speech

The Future of Addictions

Addict Discrimination in the News

Mandated Treatment for Welfare Recipients

Anorectic Murdered by Doctors out of Ignorance and "Desperation"(10/20/99)

Six Dead Heroin Addicts-Enough? 10/31/99

American Society of Addiction Medicine Discrimination

Darryl Strawberry Punished Again

South Carolina Forces Pregnant Women to Take Drug Tests

When it comes to drugs, the constitution doesn't apply

Parents of Overweight Girl Will Sue New Mexico



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Hypoics are born, not made.

Dan F. Umanoff, M.D.  
8779 Misty Creek Dr.  
Sarasota, Florida 34241  


cont. from page 1.
The text from my book is in blue:
LeDoux discusses therein [his book] the neuroanatomy and functional significance of some of the most important parts of the limbic system. In particular, he notes the roles played by the amygdala, hypothalamus, anterior thalamus, hippocampus, cingulate cortex, lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (the main anatomical areas of the limbic system) in processing external stimuli from the senses, and internal stimuli from the cortex (thoughts) into emotional feelings (consciousness), actions (behavior), memories, bodily sensations, and emotional assessments of these stimuli. I will summarize briefly his conclusions, which are critical to an understanding of why the psychological-religious (conscious control) paradigm has no way to deal with addictions and why the Hypoism paradigm (surrender of control) does:

1. Brain systems that generate emotional behavior are highly conserved through many levels of evolutionary history; that the neural organization of particular emotional behavioral systems is pretty similar across species; [that] what it means to be human involves an appreciation of the ways in which we are like other animals as well as the ways in which we are different. [Our neurological systems dealing with emotions have evolved over hundreds of millions of years]

2. When one of these evolutionarily old systems (like the system that produces defensive behaviors in the presence of danger) goes about its business in a conscious brain, emotional feelings (like being afraid) are the result. Otherwise, the brain accomplishes its behavioral goals in the absence of robust awareness. And absence of awareness is the rule of mental life, rather than the exception, throughout the animal kingdom. If we do not need conscious feelings to explain what we would call emotional behavior in some animals, then we do not need them to explain the same behavior in humans. Emotional responses are, for the most part, generated unconsciously. [These systems function at an unconscious level]

3. Conscious feelings are in one sense no different from other states of consciousness [which] occur when the system responsible for awareness becomes privy to the activity occurring in unconscious processing systems. [Conscious awareness of emotional processes are rare and unpredictable]

4. Emotions are things that happen to us rather than things we will to occur. We have little direct control over our emotional reactions. While conscious control over emotions is weak, emotions can flood consciousness. This is so because the wiring of the brain at this point in our evolutionary history is such that connections from the emotional systems to the cognitive systems are stronger than the connections from the cognitive systems to the emotional systems. [Conscious control of emotional responses is nonexistent]

5. One of the major conclusions about cognition and emotion that comes from this approach is that both seem to operate unconsciously, with only the outcome of cognitive or emotional processing entering awareness and occupying our conscious minds, and only in some instances. [The thinking process and associated feelings derived from it are again, for the most part, occurring unconsciously]

The critical conclusion he reaches about emotions by the end of the book is:

  • 6. You can have an emotional feeling without being conscious of the eliciting stimulus, without the actual eliciting stimulus being represented in a short-term cortical buffer and held in working memory. Stimuli that are not noticed, or that are noticed but their implications aren't, can unconsciously trigger emotional behaviors and visceral responses. In such situations, the stimulus content of working memory will be amplified by the arousal and feedback that result, causing you to attribute the arousal and bodily feelings to the stimuli in working memory. However, because the stimuli in working memory, [what is in your face at that moment], did not trigger the brain, the situation will be misdiagnosed. Moreover, if there is nothing particular occupying working memory, you will be in a situation where your feelings are not understood. If emotions are triggered by stimuli that are processed unconsciously, you will not be able to later reflect back on those experiences and explain why they occurred with any degree of accuracy. Contrary to the primary supposition of cognitive appraisal theories, the core of an emotion is not an introspectively accessible conscious representation. Even when we do have introspective access, the conscious content is not likely to be what triggered the emotional responses in the first place. The emotional responses and the conscious content are both products of specialized emotion systems that operate unconsciously. [Conscious misinterpretation of the emotional underpinnings of decision-making and the resultant behavior is the rule rather than the exception]

The above principles of emotional processing (cortical-limbic interaction) form the basis of the Hypoism paradigm's representation of the decision-making apparatus and its function in producing the peculiarities of the addiction process (discussed later in the chapter) and why our current distorted, fanciful, and unfounded view of this process has led to the P/R paradigm's mistakes in its perception of addictions, in particular, that addictions are consciously derived, a choice (willful), and that conscious control could have any utility in prevention or treatment.

I want you to re-read the blue material over until you comprehend the enormity of its implications in terms of how the human brain deals with instinctive, emotional, thinking and decision-making, of Limbic origin, the neurologic origin of all addictions. If it hasn't been clarified by your Hypoism readings to date, let me clarify it once again: addictions arise from the instinct evaluation and decision-making mechanism deep in the Limbic system of the brain. The above material explains the inability of conscious (cortical) thinking to effect, for the most part, Limbic decisions. I call this phenomenon Corticolimbic dissociation, a concept that explains many other human quarks, discussed in detail in my book because of its importance, such as all forms of unconscious discrimination, self-righteousness, and genocide. In hypoics this is magnified by the hypoic neurobiological and genetic deficiencies. The above material is critical to comprehending the paradoxical responses hypoics have to conscious attempts at preventing or intervening upon addictions and their use of addictors (drugs and instinctive behaviors). This piece of the addiction puzzle is just one of several discussed in this article that the P/R paradigm ignores in its addiction paradigm and is the main missing piece that nullifies their paradigm. To reiterate: Conscious attempts to control Hypoism, a disease of limbic origin, and its resultant symptoms are to no avail by dint of the design of human neurological connections between different parts of the brain involved in addiction causation, on the one hand, and attempts to consciously control them on the other. The history of these failed attempts is clear. Persisting in these attempts is stubborn and stupid. They don't work, and this material on the Limbic system is why. Any valid and useful paradigm on addiction must reconcile this neurology. Hypoism does while the P/R paradigm doesn't. The P/R paradigm is ignoring this stuff and fails to deal with addictions because of it. If you ignore it as well you will have the same results, stuck and lost in the P/R paradigm of hell. As you will see below, and more so in the book, Hypoism takes this neurology into account in its recovery process, the only comprehensive addiction paradigm to do so. This material is the crux of the addiction conundrum today and only by acknowledging its influence will we be able to move on to overall realistic recovery and policies on addictions.

The motivational forces working within the hypoic's brain urging him/her to use addictors against his/her will work by these unconscious mechanisms, unconscious by the nature of their neuroanatomical connections, not by some goofy mythological construct such as Freud's Repression or other such nonsense. The unconscious nature of the decision to use addictors and the biological nature of the underpinnings of addictability completes the picture of addictions we have for ever misperceived. The P/R paradigm, ignorant and ignoring of this work, insists addictions are conscious choices, while the hypoism paradigm, realizing the essence of addiction as unconscious, puts this information to work to understand addictions realistically rather than in the same old biased and unforgiving way.

Very few people are aware of this work by LeDoux even though his book was reviewed in the NY Times a few years ago. I don't think it was appreciated by the P/R paradigm people who read the Times and clearly not by anyone else either. But, to me, it was one of the critical pieces to the jigsaw puzzle of addiction paradigms and in particular, the piece of the puzzle concerning the obvious unconscious nature of addictions which allows for the demographic equanimity and inexorability of addictions despite education, familiarity, and knowing better. This final piece of information about how the brain works in the hypoic, genetically setup to be an addict via Hypoism, segues us into the final issues of addiction, that prevention, education, treatment, and criminalization (blame) of addictions and addicts not only don't work for the above reason but make things so much worse.

Before I do that, I need to insert an aside: I can't complete the history of the development of Hypoism in the wake of the P/R paradigm without mentioning the key role Alcoholics Anonymous, originated by Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob, has played in my deciphering Hypoism, particularly its recovery. First, without the benefit of AA I wouldn't have been sober long enough to have had the time to do the research necessary to arrive at the concepts that allowed me to thread Hypoism into a discernible and cohesive hypothesis. For this I am forever grateful. Second, and equally as important, is that after completing the neurobiological puzzle discussed above, I looked back at AA to query why it and only it has been as successful as it has been over the years despite having stalled at about 5% overall hypoic recovery. One must realize that prior to AA there was no success whatsoever with addictions using psychotherapy, medications, and religious transformations. This is true today as well. Remember, absent AA there would be no word recovery because recovery wouldn't exist. All past and current recovery has originated in AA despite what its critics, copy cats, and thieves might argue to the contrary. The question I had to ask AA had to do with not so much why it isn't more successful but why is it successful at all in an area where there is no other real success. In order to assess AA I had to look at all the various parts of AA: Spiritualism, fellowship, support, sponsorship, service, 12 steps, making coffee and setting up for meetings, meetings, sharing, leading meetings, and many others. Aside from the important ancillary modalities which had been used in other unsuccessful programs including spiritualism and ritual, one aspect stood out in importance: Sponsorship. How does sponsorship when done as AA suggests it be done relate to the principles of Hypoism? AA says, let your sponsor run your recovery. This little phrase, when done thoroughly, relates exactly to the unconscious DMA and nature of addictions as defined in Hypoism (as opposed to all other failed methods attempting recovery utilizing conscious mechanisms and therapy). That Hypoism and its resultant addictions are unconscious in origin means that conscious controls of various sorts can't work, but rather surrender of control to another person in recovery can work. This principle is the essence of AA recovery even though most everyone thinks its a different one, spiritualism. Spiritualism may well help someone stop an addiction, but instead of recovery, it's rather a switch from one addiction, alcohol , to another, spiritualism . This is not recovery because recovery must be from the underlying disease of the DMA, Hypoism, not from the particular addiction. This unrealized mistake is the reason current methods of recovery are so ineffective. Recovery only happens when one surrenders his/her decision-making to one's sponsor, when one uses someone elses brain to help make decisions. It is the unconscious and self-sufficient decision-making that gets hypoics into trouble with addictions and it's the surrender that results in recovery. Of course, when one reviews the complete pathophysiology of Hypoism and addictions in Hypoic's Handbook, it becomes completely obvious that recovery needs to be from the Hypoism not just the stopping of the addiction or replacement of it with another. AA showed me that Hypoism was correct in all aspects in addition to its neurobiology; the behavioral decision-making implications of its neurobiology as well. These implications are what the current P/R paradigm misses completely, mostly because it doesn't fathom the unconscious DMA and how and where in the brain it acts. Thus, AA completed the picture of Hypoism for me without understanding anything about it itself. Funny how these things work. I only hope that AA learns about Hypoism so that it is able to grow and include all hypoics as well as focus its recovery on the essence of recovery that it invented but simultaneously misuses and underuses because it doesn't itself know what its own essence is. Instead, AA uses all its modalities superstitiously without having any perspective on which works and which are merely ancillary. In doing so AA remains superstitious and confusing, thus limiting its effectiveness.

Finally, recovery from addictions under the auspices of the P/R paradigm is currently a hit or miss adventure with much relapse and failure and only about a 5% long term success rate. Most of this success with addictions is due to AA and other 12 step programs. This dismal success rate is because no one understands what causes addictions and how they work to perpetuate themselves in addicts. Real and maximal recovery from addictions can only arise from understanding and using the real paradigm of addictions, Hypoism, because it understands addictions in all its aspects. I will not go into depth about recovery here because to fully understand the recovery program dictated by Hypoism, one needs to understand Hypoism in depth first. This only happens upon reading the whole book, Hypoic's Handbook, when all its concepts are completely understood. I will say this, however: If and when Hypoism is ever fully accepted and used by our society, the picture of addictions in this country and the world will be one that is totally unimaginable today. That I can assure you.

One word of warning I need to give about how the P/R paradigm approaches treatment. The aim of the P/R paradigm, because it has no grasp on the true pathophysiology of addictions, is to use the limited pathophysiology it does know, that of the genetic neurotransmitter deficiencies in addicts and the receptors of the reward system, to control addictions and to change addicts into nondangerous addicts. This has led to the two approaches of treatment, discounting the psychotherapy attempts to control addictions which always have been failures. These two chemical approaches are 1) give the addicts a replacement legal addiction, such as methadone or SSRI's or SSNI's, etc., so they will feel too good to use illegal drugs, and 2) give them reward system blockers so they can't get addicted to illegal drugs because they won't be able to get high. The first method is fraudulent but good for society (in their malignant opinion). The second method is criminal, in my opinion, because the chemically altered addicts won't even be able to feel normal amounts of enjoyment and accomplishments since these natural highs will also be blocked by the drugs that prevent addictions. In contrast, Hypoism recovery doesn't require drugs or therapy of any kind and frees the addicts to be the people they've always wanted to be but without having their addictions interfere. You tell me which is better for addicts and society.

As much as we would like to prevent addictions by conscious means including education, stigmatization, ostracism, criminalization, and the drug war3, the effects of these attempts will all be determined by the actual neurophysiology of the entity that causes addictions. Like it or not, this is the case. If the neurophysiology that dictates addiction ignores these efforts, redoubling them will have no positive effect, and, in fact will make things absolutely worse by forcing addicts underground where the damage occurs. This is exactly what is happening today, if you haven't noticed. Of course, this is exactly why these methods have not only not changed the history of addictions, but have, instead, riddled the landscape with dead bodies instead of preventing addiction and improving recovery. Also, of course, we can continue to ignore the science (or pick and choose which science we will use and which we won't) behind addictions and continue our past and present into the future out of deep irrational hate for addicts and self-righteousness. On the other hand, if we are truly sincere about wanting to prevent the consequences of addiction and help produce maximal recovery among addicts of all varieties, then we must revise our policies in accord with the actual pathophysiology of addictions, Hypoism, instead of our unfounded scientifically fantasized and biased beliefs.

This was a short history of Hypoism up through today, correct but ignored. The future history of addictions will be written by those of you who read this article and the book, Hypoic's Handbook, and follow its imperatives. Either you will take Hypoism seriously and improve the future or you will ignore it and continue the past. This choice is yours. But now, at least, you have the choice because you have discovered an alternative paradigm based on all the science there is known to man as of today, not the limited science the P/R paradigm will allow you to know and read and meant to keep you ignorant, afraid, and passive. Information is power only if you use it.

3. These attempts to control addicts and addictions result in the opposite effects, worsening of addictions and damage to addicts and their families. It is counterintuitive, but of course, that's Hypoism vs. the P/R paradigm, counterintuitive but based on science. Frequently, science is exactly this way. That's why the scientific method was invented, to counter the mistakes caused by human intuition.

Table Comparing The Hypoism and Psychological Religious Paradigms.

To show how diametrically opposed they are and why.
Current and Past Paradigm:

Use of a substance, person, idea, belief, or behavior to change how you feel against your will.
The compulsive use of a substance resulting in physical, psychological, or social harm to the user and continued use despite harm. It is a psychological and behavioral syndrome that is characterized by 1) loss of control, 2) compulsive drug use, and 3) continued use despite harm. (The specific definitions of underlined words are impossible to find. And, when did an addict ever have control?)
No underlying disease. Each addiction in each addict is its own "disease."
Single cause:

Genetic diversity (see hypothetical population distribution curve below) of genes making up the "Feel O. K. System" (FOKS). Causes a critical deficiency in the FOKS activity in some people, which inexorably causes Hypoism. The hypoic FOKS defines Hypoism and causes hypoics to be addicts. Only hypoics can be addicts.

Multiple unproven complex causes:

Genetic "predisposition," psychological causes, socioeconomic influences, environmental influences (peer pressure, learned from family members, dysfunctional family, poor role models, poor upbringing, divorce, sexual abuse by family members, physical abuse by family members, inadequate religious training, various undefined stresses, post traumatic disorder, etc.). Whatever anyone wants to attribute the addiction to after the fact. None of these causes have ever been proven, just associated with addictions in a backward direction, after the fact.

Anyone is capable of being an addict.

Preposterous "Hijacked brain" model
Difficulties in evaluation of self and situations. Difficulties in decision-making of all kinds leading to disasters in the future. Part of the Hypoism entity.
Hodgepodge of etiologically unrelated but coexisting "psychopathologies" and "personality disorders" requiring separate therapies and treatments.

No treatment, only recovery.

(See glossary for discussion of history of and usefulness of rehabilitation centers and programs. They were started in order to give detoxed addicts a little time free of their addiction prior to entering A.A. at home. A.A. is where recovery occurs. This concept has been perverted into some sort of "treatment" for addictions along with its inevitable "aftercare" programs.
Multiple (but unproven) treatments such as rehab centers, psychotherapy, severe punishments (jail), various medications (methadone, antabuse, bromocriptine, Prozac, and other serotonin re-uptake blockers), religious conversion, acupuncture, meditation, psychoanalysis, will power, group therapy, you name it, etc. All baseless, but profitable. Has had 60 years of using this paradigm but has not one single scientifically valid experiment to show that what they call treatment has any more effect than chance. These gurus and charlatans offer nonexistent power to powerless people and blame the addict when he fails to get sober. Uses infomercial techniques, such as live anecdotes and testimony of so-called experts and success stories, as proof of the validity of the paradigm instead of valid experimental results.
None. Hypoics are born, not made.

However, early recognition of one's Hypoism can lead to early entrance into recovery.
Multiple unproven attempts: Education, threats, lectures extolling the dangers of addictions, advertisements in the media, movies such as "reefer madness," warnings, various groups against drugs, drug wardrug war, spending money on programs against drugs, such as midnight basketball, etc. No evidence whatsoever that these prevention attempts or programs prevent anything.
12 step Hypoism recovery process as discussed in book. Process includes acknowledgment, realization, surrender of control, and acceptance.

Bypasses deficient FOKS and ATB. Counter-instinctive recovery.
No recovery within this paradigm. As long as self-sufficiency is maintained, there is no recovery. A hypoic is not capable of control over addictions or of changing himself into a recovered addict in terms of addictions, evaluation difficulties, or decision-making problems. See definition of relapse in glossary.
Irrelevant and counterproductive. Leads to short and long term relapse.
Self-sufficiency is the ultimate aim of the P/R paradigm. Ensures relapse.
Decriminalization, destigmatization via promotion and acceptance of the Hypoism paradigm, acceptance of the active as well as the recovering addict. Cooperation with the addict in terms of "harm reduction" and availability of detoxes and rehabs (as defined in the book) and recovery.

Disappearance of P.I.M.M.P.A.L. complex.
Punishment, mandated treatment, stigmatization, ostracism, humiliation, discrimination in all areas of life, maximizes control over addicts, addictions, and addictors. Harm reduction is opposed because it "sends the wrong message to the populous that we condone drugs."

Maintenance of the P.I.M.M.P.A.L. complex control which ensures minimal recovery and perpetuates itself.
Acceptance of human instincts and human nature based on them and evolution of the human animal.

You can take the addiction out of the hypoic, but you can't take the Hypoism out of the addict.

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