Hypoism



Home Page of Hypoism, The Disease of Addictions


Web site advertising


The Overriding Principle


The reason for this web site


IMAGINE


send me a message


Discussion Page

Buy the book



Buy the Book

Hypoism Issues



Role of Dopamine in Addiction Causation


Theory of Addiction - Hypoism Hypothesis


Why drug use is unconscious and against one's willfulness - not volitional


Misuse of the word choice in addictions


THE INESCAPABLE LOGIC OF ANY VALID ADDICTION ETIOLOGICAL PARADIGM


WHAT OTHER DISEASE....?


What Am I Angry About? - Don't Ask Me This Again


Disease Concept - A Perspective


HYPOISM IN A NUT SHELL


Page Directory of this Site with Explanations and Links


The History of the Proof of Hypoism in the Wake of the P/R Paradigm page 1.


History page 2


Why Addiction Experts and Other People Are Ignoring Hypoism


Strange Brew


AIMING AT AN UNDERSTANDING OF ADDICTIONS


The Paradigm Vacuum in Addictions Today


THE ADDICTION PROBLEM AND THE SOLUTION


What Does An Addiction Expert Know?


The Hypoism Addiction Hypothesis - An Evolutionary Psychology Perspective


Addiction Questionnaire


Misconceptions of addictions and addicts


What's Hypoism? What's an Addiction?


WHY WE DON'T NEED HYPOISM.


Why We Need Hypoism: A Comparison of the Principles and Consequences between the two Paradigms


Entitled to Your Opinion? Not Anymore.


HYPOICMAN: A non-recovering, unimpressed Hypoic


The Field of Addictionology: A Golfing Analogy


NEW YEAR PREDICTIONS


Contact Information

Hypoism Treatment Research



The Addiction Treatment Fraud Finally Exposed


Hypoism Treatment Research Proposal

N4A



I KEPT QUIET


The National Association for the Advancement and Advocacy of Addicts


Make A Contribution To The N4A


Addict Discrimination Documentation


Social Innovations Award 2000 for The N4A


Third Millennium N4A Conference Keynote Address on Hypoism - Pathophysiology in Addictions vs. Superstition


N4A Goes on the Offensive - Suggesting Real Action


The Verdict


Blind Faith?

Learn More About the Book



Letters from book readers


Title Page of Book


Book Blurb


Book Cover


Back Cover


Table of Contents


Foreword


Preface


Opening Statement


Chapter 1


Vision For The Future


Outcomes of Hypoic's Handbook


Bibliography


Book Corrections


Harm reduction prototype: Swiss PROVE program

Book Reviews



The Phoenix Magazine

Hypoics Not-Anonymous



Hypoics Not-Anonymous

Things You Can Do



What you can do---


My Kids

Special Links



Special Links to important web sites


Addiction Links on the Web

Addiction Genetics



Recent Genetic Studies on Various Addictions from a Large Twin Registry


Genetic Studies page 2.


Gateway theory finally disproven


Celera Discovers Millions of Tiny Genetic Differences in People

Interesting Addiction Science



Clinically Important Neurotransmitter Deficiencies

Hypoism Magazine-Articles by and for Hypoics



EMBRYONIC HYPOISM CIRCA 1968


#1 Hatred, #2 The Words: Opinion, Belief, and Knowledge, #3 Hate Addiction


#4 The Drug War War, #5 Evolution vs. Creationism Revisited for Addictions


#6 American Society for Addiction Medicine Statement for Recovering Physicians


#7 Issues Peculiar to the Disease of Addictions


#8 Critique of Alan Lechner's (NIH), "The Hijacked Brain Hypothesis."


#8a. Update!! Dr. Leshner recently makes a change


#9 MY STORY - The Doctor Drug War - Wrong and Wasteful p.1, 1/6/00


The Doctor Drug War p.2


Doctor Drug War p.3


Doctor Drug War p.4


Doctor Drug War p.5


Affidavit for judicial review of NYS Dept. of Ed.


#10 The Superstition Instinct 3/1/00


#11-Conflict of Interest in Addiction Research


#12 - Controlled Drinking Lands On Its Ass


#13 - The Kennedy Curse or Kennedy Hypoism?


#14 - The Lord's Prayer for Hypoics


#15 - Replacing Alan Leshner is the only way to end the Drug War


#16 - The Brain Addiction Mechanism and the COGA Study


#17 - Letter to the director of the National Academy of Medicine's Board on Neurobiology and Behavior Health on Addictions


#18 - Is Addiction Voluntary, A Choice, as Leshner and NIDA Insist?


#19 - Bush's Alcoholism and Lies


#20 - A P/R Paradigm Addict - "Cured?"


#21 - Congress Misled and Lied to by NIAAA


#22 - Special Letter to the Times on Addiction Genetics


#23 - JAMA Editor Publishes According to His Beliefs, Not Science


#24 - Smoking as Gateway Drug. I Don't Think So!


#24B - IS COCAINE ADDICTION CAUSED BY COCAINE?


#25 - One Less Heroin Addict. But At What Cost?


#26 - An Open Letter to the Judge who Sentences Robert Downey, Jr.


#27 - Letter To Schools About The Pride Program Against Drugs


#28 - A Letter To Bill Moyers, Close To Home, and PBS


#29 - HYPOISM IS ACTUALLY A DISEASE OF THE "WILL"


#30 - Brookhaven Labs Provide More Evidence For Hypoism


#31 - Addiction Prevention Revisited


#32 - DRUG WAR EVALUATION BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE


#33 - NIDA Is Close But No Cigar


#34 - Bush's Addict Discrimination and Hypocricy Begins


#35 - Maya Angelou's, "Still I Rise."


#36 - Leshner Lies To Congress


#37 - Addiction Combos


#38 Brain tumor proves Hypoism hypothesis


#39: So-called Availability Debunked as Contributor of Addictions


#40 - Hypoism Reproduced By A Pill


PIMMPAL Complex


Cartoons

The Hypoism Blog - The Addiction Blog



The Addiction Blog 4/17/11 -


The Addiction Blog 9/14/10 - 4/16/11


The Addiction Blog 11/12/09 - 9/14/10


The Addiction Blog 7/23/09 - 11/09/09


The Addiction Blog 5/16/09 - 7/22/09


The Addiction Blog 3/3/09 - 5/13/09


The Addiction Blog 8/3/08 - 3/3/09


The Addiction Blog 4/1/07 - 8/3/08

old letters



My NY Times Letters to the Editor page 1.


My NY Times Letters to the Editor page 2.


My NY Times Letters to the Editor page 3.


My NY Times Letters to the Editor page 4.


My NY Times Letters to the Editor page 5.


My New York Times Letters to the Editor page 6.


My Letters to the editor of the NY Times page 7.


My Letters to the Editor of the NY Times page 8.


NY Times Letters Page 9.


New York Times Letters Page 10


My NYT Letters page 11


NY Times Letters page 12.


NY Times letters p. 13


Letters to the NY Times page 14.


Letters to Newsday


Letters To The Los Angeles Times


Creationism/Evolution Letter to BAM 11-25-05

Speeches



Committee for Physician Health Speech
goldbutton.jpg

The Future of Addictions

Addict Discrimination in the News



Mandated Treatment for Welfare Recipients


Anorectic Murdered by Doctors out of Ignorance and "Desperation"(10/20/99)


Six Dead Heroin Addicts-Enough? 10/31/99


American Society of Addiction Medicine Discrimination


Darryl Strawberry Punished Again


South Carolina Forces Pregnant Women to Take Drug Tests


When it comes to drugs, the constitution doesn't apply


Parents of Overweight Girl Will Sue New Mexico


Scrapbook

Downloads



Download Files


huffington post


Custom HTML


Sitemap




Hypoics are born, not made.

Hypoism  
Dan F. Umanoff, M.D.  
941-926-5209  
8779 Misty Creek Dr.  
Sarasota, Florida 34241  

dan.umanoff.md@gmail.com  




GENETIC DIVERSITY DOCUMENTED BY CELERA

GENETIC DIVERSITY DOCUMENTED BY CELERA

HERE WE GO!

Here's an article about Celera, the major private investigator on the human genome project, beginning the process of discovering the tiny but vast numbers of genetic individual differences between people that lead to genetic diversity of all functions of the body. We excitedly await the findings in the genes controlling the FOKS in the decision-making apparatus leading to the Hypoism predictions. WOW!

Reuters:

Mapping Tiny Differences Genome Company Has Found 2.8 Million Small Discrepancies

W A S H I N G T O N, Sept. 13 - Celera Genomics Inc., the Maryland-based company that is working to map every single human gene, said today it had found 2.8 million of the little changes that make one person different from another. These differences - known as single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs - each represent a single change in the 3 billion letters that make up the human genetic code. For instance, one person may have an "A" where another has a "C." The announcement means Celera has outstripped the rival public project to map the human genome, Craig Venter, president of Celera, said in a telephone interview. "It is a far greater number of SNPs than there are in the public databases," Venter said. Earlier this month, the publicly funded Human Genome Project and the public-private SNP consortium, which includes 10 major pharmaceutical companies, announced that they had found 800,000 different SNPs (pronounced "snips"). Venter said Celera had duplicated 400,000 of these in its 2.8 million. But the public project has 400,000 unique SNPs, which means 3.2 million SNPs are now known.

Promise of SNPS:

Scientists hope to eventually use these SNPs to find out why one person develops heart disease and another does not, why some women have a higher risk of breast cancer, and why some people have side-effects from certain drugs. Most of these traits will probably be caused by a combination of SNPs. Such a genetic trait is known as a haplotype. But occasionally, a single SNP is linked with disease. For instance, Venter said the 2.8 million SNPs that Celera had found include a single letter change in a gene known as APOe that makes people prone to heart disease. This change had been known, but Venter said Celera's work confirmed it independently. Venter, who was scheduled to announce his findings at a conference of genomics researchers in Miami later today, said it will take some time to determine which SNPs mean something and which are just random differences. "We know precisely where they are," he said. "As we annotate the genome, we know whether they are in protein regions ... or key regulatory regions. We will know which ones have a chance of being associated with function."

Are Differences Important?

Proteins are the basic building blocks of the human body, so changes there may have biological importance, Venter said. Those that occur in regulatory regions may turn a gene on or off - also of huge biological significance, Venter said. "A single change could have profound impacts on protein expression," Venter said. "It could lead to physiological changes and or disease." But Venter stressed that it will take a great deal of research to find which changes are important. "In most of us, most of the traits and things that we have are due to combinations of changes," he said. "The genetics community has made such a big deal out of rare diseases and rare genes that people assume that these are the standard. And they assume it is all determinism, as well, which it isn't." Environmental factors, such as age, diet and exposure to sunlight, combine with genes to create changes such as ageing or disease in people. Celera has made the information about the SNPs available to its subscribers, which include drug companies and academic researchers who will use the raw information to try and find biological meaning in the SNPs. On Tuesday, Genaissance Pharmaceuticals, Inc. said its researchers had found 12 different haplotypes that affected patients' response to the asthma drug albuterol. Each was made up of a combination of different SNPs.

7/16/01

NY Times: Study Breaks New Ground on Variations in Genome

Genaissance shows that on average, genes have 12 alleles each.

A large-scale study of the variability in the human genome has shown that each human gene may come in 12 different versions on average. The authors also say their findings cast doubt on the way that a large government and industry program is mining the genome for the genetic basis of common human diseases.

The study was undertaken by Genaissance Pharmaceuticals, a biotechnology company in New Haven, to discover the genetic basis for why individuals respond differently to given drugs.

The company's plan is to help doctors determine through a genetic test, rather than trial and error, which asthma or cholesterol drug, for example, would be best for a patient. The company has bought 60 of the latest-model DNA-sequencing machines, one of the largest sets outside those of the genome-sequencing centers, and installed them in a refurbished World War II munitions plant in New Haven.

The decoding of the human genome provided, in effect, a single DNA sequence. But what is of interest for most medical purposes is to know how each gene varies from one person to another and how those variations influence an individual's susceptibility to disease and response to drugs.

Government and industry have devoted considerable resources to looking for sites in the genome's three- billion-unit sequence where some people have one letter of DNA and some another. These sites of common variation are known as SNP's (pronounced snips). The hope is to correlate SNP's with disease and discover which versions of a gene predispose a person to diseases like diabetes or cancer.

So far three million or so SNP's have been cataloged, but they have been discovered more or less at random across the genome. Genaissance officials estimate that there are some 30 million SNP's in the human population, and say a SNP chosen at random is unlikely to pinpoint a gene variant that causes disease or drug response.

Instead, Genaissance is analyzing sets of closely bunched SNP's in the hope of correlating the patterns with a patient's response to various drugs. A connected set of SNP's inherited as a unit is called a haplotype, and so the company calls its method the haplotype approach.

Its ambition is to catalog the haplotypes of every human gene by decoding each gene in a total of about 90 people drawn from the three major human-population groups: Africans, Asians and Europeans. Company officials say they have already sequenced 4,000 of the estimated 30,000 human genes in this way and intend to sequence all of them within a few years.

Genaissance has published the results from 313 of these genes in today's issue of Science, in an article by Dr. J. Claiborne Stephens and several colleagues. From an analysis of the SNP's in these 313 genes, the authors calculate that each gene exists in 12 versions on average.

Dr. Kenneth Kidd, a population geneticist at Yale University who was not connected with the study, described the data as very important and said it confirmed how much genetic variability existed in the human population. He said he agreed with Genaissance's view that the SNP approach was "misconceived," and chided the government for having stripped ethnic identities from the panel of people whose genomes have been searched for SNP's.

But Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, said the SNP and haplotype approaches were not in opposition. His institute plans a workshop next week, he said, on how to build a haplotype map of the genome. There may be quick ways of arranging the SNP's already discovered into the sets or haplotypes in which they are usually inherited.

Dr. Gualberto Ruaño, chief executive of Genaissance, said its haplotype catalog could help pharmaceutical companies to profile patients who respond best to their drugs, and to develop new drugs for any identified group of those who fail to respond.

Genetic information can be a delicate matter, particularly if it reveals a person's susceptibility to disease. Dr. Gerald F. Vovis, the company's chief technology officer, said Genaissance was developing information only about drug response, which in his view would fall into a less delicate category.

Both Dr. Kidd and Dr. David Altshuler of Harvard University said Genaissance was overcounting the number of SNP's and haplotypes, by including SNP's found in a single person. Because only common SNP's are likely to play a role in common diseases, geneticists usually count a DNA change as a SNP only it if occurs in at least 1 percent of a population. Many of the DNA changes Genaissance finds are singletons of perhaps no significance for any but the individual involved.

Moreover:

Nature Reviews Genetics 6, 668 (2005); doi:10.1038/nrg1703

WEB WATCH Uniting human variation

Louisa Flintoft

http://projects.tcag.ca/variation

It's becoming increasingly clear that polymorphism in the human genome goes way beyond SNPs. More and more studies are now identifying large-scale genomic variants — which include inversions, deletions and copy-number variants — as important components of normal human genetic variation. The Database of Genomic Variants aims to put all the information from these studies in one place. The database is continually updated with information from both experimental data produced in-house by the research groups that curate it and from published studies. Just pick a chromosome and you are presented with a list of known variants, organized by location. Alternatively, you can enter the name of your favourite gene or region of the genome and the database will tell you if any identified variants are associated with it. Useful graphical representations allow you to visualize where each variant lies in relation to cytological bands, coding regions and segmental duplications. The database also tells you the frequency of each variant, the method that was used to identify it and the ethnic backgrounds of the individuals in whom it was located. Links to gene databases and original papers make further investigations straightforward. Once you've identified a variant of interest, the database also allows you to access a genome browser that provides more information about the surrounding genomic region. Here you can look for a range of features, including CpG islands, gene deserts, SNPs and segmental duplications. As it expands, the database should help to piece together the contribution of large-scale polymorphisms to the genetic individualities that make each of us different.









You can take the addiction out of the hypoic, but you can't take the Hypoism out of the addict.




Sign In