"Men fear thought as they fear nothing else on earth, more than ruin, more even than death....Thought is subversive and revolutionary, destructive and terrible, thought is merciless to privilege, established institutions, and comfortable habit. Thought looks into the pit of hell and is not afraid. Thought is great and swift and free, the light of the world, and the chief glory of man." -Bertrand RussellTo help flesh out some important ideas, please read all of the following. Hypoic's Handbook was synthesized and expanded on the ideas expounded herein.
1. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Drug Dependence, George F. Koob and Floyd E. Bloom; Science, vol. 242, pages, 715-723, November 1988. The first good scientific paper relating alcohol and drugs to functional receptor areas in the brain, in particular: specific areas in the limbic system.
2. Nature's Mind: The Biological Roots of Thinking, Emotions, Sexuality, Language, and Intelligence, Michael S. Gazzaniga, (New York: Basic Books, 1992). Important book, conceptually. He argues the nature (selection) vs. nurture (learning) controversy of human nature. His main idea is called "the selection theory of addiction." His concept propounds that the environment selects a response that evolution has already placed in the organism's cognitive hardwiring repertoire. Addiction is not learned, he says (although it looks that way). It is, rather, a behavioral response to a cognitive (thinking) mechanism already in place. It is not behavior that evolves, but cognitive mechanisms (what I call the FOKS). He gets to within a hair's breadth of Hypoism, but misses because he doesn't know anything about addictions.
3. Modular Brain: How new discoveries in neuroscience are answering age-old questions about memory, free will, consciousness, and personal identity, Richard M. Restak, M.D., (New York: Scribner's; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, c1994). Discusses how the brain is put together. Presents the concept of specific machines (modules) in the brain for specific jobs. Important concept! The conceptual basis of the decision-making apparatus (machine).
4. Biology of Emotions, Jean Didier-Vincent, 1990.
5. Is Alcoholism Hereditary? Donald Goodwin, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976). Good basic genetics except that the studies are flawed because they looked at alcoholism instead of Hypoism. Despite these flaws, it shows a strong genetic association.
6. The Limbic System - Functional Organization and Clinical Disorders, Benjamin K. Doane and Kenneth F. Livingstone, Eds. (New York: Raven Press, 1986). Good review of neuroanatomy and evolution of the limbic system.
7. Temperament - Individual Differences at the Interface of Biology and Behavior, John Bates and Theodore Wachs, Eds. (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1994). Excellent discussion of how biology (temperaments) produce personality - an eye opener. Important concepts although filled with prejudices.
8. The Genetics of Alcoholism, Henri Begleiter and Benjamin Kissin, Eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). An example of addictionology literature that shows how pseudoscience produces invalid conclusions.
9. Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress, Floyd E. Bloom and David J. Kupfer, Eds. (New York: Raven Press, 1995). Chapters 69, 148, 149, 153, Genetics, and 158. The straightforward biology behind how and where addictive drugs work in the brain and the documentation of animal addiction models that demonstrate how genetically in-bred strains of animals get addicted or not based solely on biology; no need to invoke environmental factors in addiction whatsoever.
10. Substance Abuse - A Comprehensive Textbook, Joyce Lowinson and Pedro Ruiz, Eds. (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1992, 2nd edition). Chapters 7, 77 and Eliot Gardner's chapter, and Chapter 6 (Brain Reward Mechanisms) in the 3rd Edition, 1997. The bible of the P/R paradigm of addiction. Only valid chapters are by Gardner (neurobiology) and Burglass (forensics of addictions). One honest statement in the chapter on "Psychodynamics (psychobabble)" makes the book worthwhile, "Unraveling the etiology of substance abuse continues to be a challenge. There have been many technological advances in understanding the chemistry of human behavior, including the highly significant discovery of OPIATE receptor sites and endorphins, as well as other neurotransmitter systems. However, the substance abuse field continues to be in a PREPARADIGM stage of development, suggesting a lack of agreement between theory and treatment." This statement could open the door for a realistic paradigm of addictionology like Hypoism if it weren't for the fact that addictionologists are so prejudicially and incontrovertibly married to their P/R paradigm.
11. The Moral Animal, Robert Wright, (New York: Vintage, 1994). How evolution and natural selection hardwires thinking, feelings and behavior. The evolutionary basis of human instincts.
12. Overload - Attention Deficit Disorder, Kenneth Blum and David Miller, Andrews and McMeel, 1996. An example of how biology leads to particular behavior.
13. Reward Deficiency Syndrome, Kenneth Blum et. al., American Scientist, Mar-Apr, 1996 or Http://www.sigmaxi.org/amsci/articles/96articles/blum-full.html. Good on the biology. Ignore the treatment advice, because Blum is hung up on the old paradigm of pharmacology (as a matter of fact, he has his own pharmaceutical company for addictions) and therapy (his co-author from Overload is a therapist.) The biology misses the true qualities of my complete concept of the FOKS, because he doesn't understand where the biology is working in the human brain. Thus, he comes up short on the implication of the biology. His concept is necessary, but not sufficient for addictions.
14. The Batterer: A Psychological Profile, Donald Dutton and Susan Golant, (New York: Basic Books, 1995). A misrepresentation of spousal abuse due to prejudicial P/R paradigmatic concepts.
15. Drugs and the Brain, Solomon H. Snyder, (Scientific American Books Inc., 1986). An excellent illustrated review of the neuroanatomy, biochemistry and biology of neurotransmitters, receptors, and where they work in the brain. Also shows where psychoactive drugs work (act) and why. A simple, necessary read in order to understand these areas.
16. Alcoholics Anonymous, Bill Wilson, (New York: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc., 1939). The Big Book.
17. The Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions, (New York: A.A. World Services, 1952). A discussion of the 12 Steps originally detailed in A.A.'s Big Book and the 12 Traditions, principles believed necessary to enhance A.A.'s survival, that Hypoism transforms into a more effective and inclusive program of recovery.
18. The Emotional Brain - The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life, Joseph LeDoux, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996). A must-read! The basis of the unconscious physiology underlying all human decision-making. The physiological basis for the "against one's will" part of the Hypoism definition of addictions. A critically important book for anyone seriously interested in the vagaries of human decision-making.
19. Cultures of Healing - Correcting the Image of American Health Care, Robert T. Francher, (New York: W.H.Freeman and Co., 1995). An excellent review of the issues involved with whether psychotherapy works, the lack of studies proving whether one type of psychological theory is better than another, or whether any one of them really helps suffering people other than via superstitious belief vs. the correctness (scientific reality base) of the theory. Basically debunks the "scientific" basis of psychotherapy. Discusses the actual lack of scientific basis of psychotherapy's claims of understanding the human psyche. In addition, all this was written by a practicing psychotherapist. The author's honesty and integrity are appreciated.
20. Descartes' Error- Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain, Antonio R. Damasio, (New York: Putnam Publishing, 1994). Excellent, but dense, discussion of the neurobiology and hypothesized mechanisms of the brain's decision-making process. Reveals what the author calls the Somatic-Marker hypothesis (seemingly equivalent to my FOKS) and thoroughly discusses its role in coordinating the organism's genetic and experiential knowledge (cognitive, emotional, conscious and unconscious) in order to produce a decision. Another must-read.
21. Why People Believe Weird Things, Michael Shermer, (New York: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1997). Excellent review of superstitious beliefs and the irrational thinking behind them. Discusses in detail several controversial belief issues, current and past, as well as the thinking mistakes that support them and that confuse the ordinary person trying to make sense of the false logic in their arguments.
22. House of Cards - Psychology and Psychotherapy Built on Myth, by Robyn M. Dawes, (New York: The Free Press (Macmillan), 1994). An absolute must-read for anyone with even a slightly open mind or a question about whether or not psychotherapy has any scientific basis whatsoever. (Not that it doesn't help some people to feel better like any other superstition, but that it is without a scientific basis and, thus, should not be used as a gold standard for human nature and mental illness decision-making-predicting the future-especially in the legal context.)
23. The Origins of Virtue, Matt Ridley, (Viking/Penguin, 1997). An excellent description of the evolutionary origins of human cooperation, or lack thereof. Another example of the utility of evolutionary studies to show why teaching and preaching family values has no effect on the human organism's behavior.
24. The Natural History of Alcoholism, Causes, Patterns and Paths to Recovery, George E. Vaillant, M.D., (Boston: Harvard University Press, 1983). A good study about the non-disease of "alcoholism" which had no definite conclusions, but which has been misinterpreted by so many anti-disease concept addiction experts as to make it a dangerous piece of work for all addicts. The Revisited most recent edition of this book, published in 1995, adds nothing of value. The confusion and lack of commitment to any one position or definition of concepts in the first edition is only compounded in the last one. This insipid position leaves the door wide open for the book to show support for all positions by "alcoholism" pundits and aficionados alike. Does prove one important point about addicts; that there is no "personality" associated with addiction.
25. Summary of the Synthesis Report. Uchtenhagen, A., Ed. "Programme for a Medical Prescription of Narcotics: Final Report of the Research Representatives" (Zurich: Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine at the University of Zurich, 1997). This synthesis report is available from the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health in Berne and from the Addiction Research Institute in Zurich.
26. Brave New Worlds - Staying Human in the Genetic Future, Bryan Appleyard, (New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc.-Viking Group, 1998) A good discussion of the validity and importance of evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics.
27.Consilience - The Unity of Knowledge, Edward O. Wilson, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998).
28. The Nurture Assumption, Judith Rich Harris, (New York: Free Press, 1998).
29. How The Mind Works, Steven Pinker, (New York: W. W. Norton & Co. Inc., 1997). An excellent and thorough discussion and review of the most up to date views on evolutionary psychology as it pertains to the human instincts and behavior.
30. Drug Crazy: How we got into this mess and how we can get out, Mike Gray, (New York: Random House, 1998).
31. The Greening of America, Charles A. Reich, (New York: Random House, 1970). Shows how the corporate state dictates the intellectual as well as the material ideas and beliefs of our country; how oblivious and acquiescent to this influence we all are. The ideological backdrop for how the P/R paradigm of human nature became dominant and why people are so afraid to think critically.
32. Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge, Vandana Shiva, (Boston: South End Press, 1997).
33. Born That Way, William Wright, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998). An overview by a journalist of the history of behavioral genetics and how biased and prejudiced pseudoscientists will lie to maintain the outdated and defunct psychological and environmental basis of human behavior.
34. Evolutionary Psychiatry - A New Beginning, Anthony Stevens and John Price, (London: Routledge, 1996). An attempt, some of which is excellent and some far fetched, to relate certain "psychiatric" conditions to evolutionary psychology. A good start conceptually. Does a good job in relating certain human instincts to behavioral patterns that are just not recognized as such today. Need more books like this to open our minds to the value of this kind of thought process necessary to understand human nature as derived from evolution rather than as an invention of each individual or culture.